About this Research Topic
Cerebrovascular diseases refer to a variety of conditions that lead to neurological deficits secondary to impairment of circulation of blood in the brain. Cerebrovascular diseases represent one of the most prevalent and devastating diseases of adults, which have become the major causes of long-term disability and mortality throughout the world. One in every ten deaths worldwide is due to stroke and more than half of stroke survivors are left dependent on others for everyday activities.
The damage and malformation of arteries that provide oxygen and nutrition to the brain may cause cerebral vascular diseases, which are subdivided into ischemic events and cerebral hemorrhages, such as stroke, aneurysm, arteriovenous malformation and carotid stenosis. The most common presentation is an ischemic stroke or mini-stroke and sometimes a hemorrhagic stroke. In ischemic stroke, once the brain is deprived of blood flow for longer than a few seconds, brain cells will die, causing permanent brain damage and leading to neurological deficits. Many mechanisms contribute to complex pathophysiological processes. Among them, hypertension is the most important contributing risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular diseases as it can change the structure of blood vessels and result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis narrows blood vessels in the brain, resulting in decreased cerebral perfusion. Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of vessels, leading to a hemorrhagic stroke.
The treatment of cerebrovascular diseases includes thrombolytic therapy, anti-platelet aggregation drugs, anticoagulants and neuroprotective agents. There are a lot of drugs against cerebrovascular diseases, but most of them lack tissue specificity with a short half-life, which seriously limits their extensive clinical application. By the utilization of some pathophysiological changes caused by cerebrovascular diseases, targeted drug distribution in cerebrovascular diseases patients could be achieved. Currently, some new drug targets for cerebrovascular diseases have been successfully identified. Moreover, recent technological and analytical advances in biology and medicine have made it possible to rapidly elucidate the mechanisms of cerebrovascular diseases initiation and progression and identify new targets.
This Research Topic aims to cover recent progress in research on novel targets and the application of targeting techniques transporting drug specifically to cerebrovascular disease at the physiological, pharmacological and pharmaceutical levels. The most relevant study will be those focus on novel targets and targeting drug delivery of cerebrovascular disease, including passive, active and physicochemical targeted delivery carriers. We welcome original research articles, review papers, and brief communications.
Keywords: Cerebrovascular disease, Stroke, Cerebral ischemia, Targeting, Drug delivery
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