About this Research Topic
Leishmaniasis is a neglected disease with a high number of cases in tropical areas around the world. The disease is caused by the protozoan of the genus Leishmania spp. The clinical manifestation can range from a single skin lesion to a visceral form, which is more severe and fatal if not treated. Discussions on the disease differ based on the parasite species and strain, vectors, and the host immune system. The wide variety of Leishmaniasis manifestations therefore make it difficult to develop an effective single treatment for all forms.
This Research Topic will discuss the mechanism of Leishmania subversion or escape from host immune response, immunobiology, vaccines and immunotherapies, leading to new findings to prevent and control Leishmaniasis.
Mechanism of Leishmania subversion or escape from host immune system:
Although the mechanism of parasite infection has been studied by many groups, there are still open questions that need to be addressed, such as:
1. Which molecules are Leishmania using to enter macrophages and to establish the infection?
2. What are the differences in the mechanism of invasion by promastigotes and amastigotes?
3. What is the role of insect saliva in the infection or immunity and which cells are the major actors that help the establishment and/or control of the infection.
Leishmaniasis is an immunopathology where the excessive response lead to the mucocutaneous form, but in the absence or suppression of the immune response we have diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and visceral leishmaniasis. Understand the mechanisms of pathogenesis and immunity is fundamental to establish the necessary actions to control the disease. Studies into the participation of Th1 and Th2 responses may revise the role of these in infection. The characterization of regulatory T cells, such as Th17 cells, would shed light on their role in pathogenesis. In addition, regulatory B cells and antibodies will be discussed as part of this Research Topic.
Keywords: Leishmaniasis, immunobiology, pathogenesis, immunity, virulence factors
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