About this Research Topic
Over-prescription of antibiotics, poor infection control and absence of new antibiotics have created an unprecedented challenge for human civilization due to ever-increasing antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to global health, food security, and development today. As such, discovery of new effective antibiotics has become a priority global issue.
Natural products have, for a long time, played an important role throughout the world in providing medicinal care and a source of new therapeutic agents. Natural products and related drugs are used to treat 87 % of all human diseases, including cancer, bacterial infection, parasitic infection and immune diseases. The existence of an extensive biological and ecological diversity of natural products has significant basis to provide novel templates for future drug design as well as structural modifications to produce potentially more active and safer drugs. Ethnopharmacology has a great significance for drug discovery from natural sources. Ethnopharmacological research is the interdisciplinary scientific exploration of biologically active agents traditionally employed or observed by humans. Ancient people have discovered a wealth of useful therapeutic agents in plants, animals and other natural kingdoms (e.g., atropine, ephedrine, tubocurarine, digoxin, reserpine) through the study of indigenous remedies.
Antimicrobial peptides belong to a wide range of protein families produced as a component of barrier defense upon infection in a wide variety of higher organisms. Antimicrobial peptides from natural sources usually possess no toxicity against humans and are stable in various conditions. They consist of different unique features and structural conformations. Based on primary sequence similarity, structural differences, ionic charges and activity against microorganisms, these peptides are classified into different groups. Natural sources, such as microbes, archaea, protists, fungi, plants and animals are the primary origin of these peptides. Antimicrobial peptides act either to directly defend the pathogens or to stimulate immune responses, whereas conventional antimicrobial agents are usually not immunogenic. Exceptional variety of structural and functional characteristics of natural antimicrobial peptides makes them excellent resources for the design of new antibiotics. Due to their promising activity and future prospects, over the last twenty years the list of identified natural antimicrobial peptides has been growing steadily and today over 1500 antimicrobial peptides have been described from natural sources including those from plants, microorganisms, insects, amphibians and mammals. A number of natural antimicrobial peptides are currently under clinical or preclinical trial, such as pexiganan, omiganan, kalata B1 and B2, novexatin, thionins, thionein, which are derived from natural sources. A number of these natural resources could have interactions with people for ethno-medicinal uses in infection or other ailments that are linked with pathogenic activity. Ethnopharmacological approaches focus on the people-nature interface and covers the past, present and future uses of natural resources that has contribution in maintenance of human health by opening essential clues for new drug discovery. Therefore, the ultimate aims of this Research Topic are to build a new and updated knowledge on antimicrobial peptides from natural sources that have ethno-medicinal uses in preventing and managing infections or other ailments caused by pathogens (in human, plant or animal). In this context, the Research Topic will help future research directions for the discovery of new antibiotics from natural sources.
Under this Research Topic, scientists are welcome to contribute high-quality Original Research and Review articles from all over the world on natural antimicrobial peptides, including new sources, isolation, purification, characterization, bioactivity, mechanism of action and the structure-activity aspects of antimicrobial peptides from natural sources. This Topic will provide insights into potential use of ethnopharmacological approaches to discover new lead peptide molecules for antibiotic therapy. Manuscripts considered for publication in this Research Topic should focus on one or more of the following areas (but are not limited to):
1. Antibacterial activity and the mode of action of bioactive antibacterial peptide extracts from natural origin that have traditional or current medicinal uses against different infection or infection or other ailments caused by pathogen (in human, plant or animal).
2. Screening or high-throughput screening of peptide extracts or peptide fractions from plant, animal, fungi, microorganism or other natural sources for antimicrobial efficacy.
3. Identification, isolation, characterization, analysis and quality control of antibacterial peptides from plant, animal, microorganism, and other natural sources.
4. Pharmacological and toxicological mechanism of action of natural antimicrobial peptides.
5. SAR studies of natural antibacterial peptides.
6. Other multidisciplinary papers with an ethnopharmacological approach to the study of antimicrobial peptides.
7. Critical reviews on the above mentioned field of natural antibacterial peptides.
All manuscripts must comply with the four pillars of best practice in Ethnopharmacology.
The four pillars of best practice in ethnopharmacology
With these guidelines we define in detail what constitutes best practice for manuscripts submitted to Frontiers in Pharmacology; Section Ethnopharmacology. They provide a basis for the peer review and build on the general requirements of Frontiers in Pharmacology.
a) The manuscript (MS) must report a substantive body of ethnopharmacological research, to be considered as an independent addition to the literature. In general, we expect that such studies are based on local / traditional uses of plants or other natural substances which need to be spelled out clearly.
b) For pharmacological studies, the model used must be one which is either generally accepted in the field as valid or a credible alternative whose general development, and application in the reported instance, has been justified.
Specifically antioxidant activity must be based on a pharmacologically relevant in vivo or cell based model. Simple in silico and pharmacologically irrelevant assays for antioxidant activity (e.g. the DPPH assay, FRAP (Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma), ABTS (2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) are not acceptable as a main tool for assessing an extract or a compound for activity.
c) Similarly, simple screening for anti-microbial effects of crude extracts is no longer state-of-the-art. Authors must follow the widely accepted standards for microbiological testing (cf. Cos et al. 2006 Anti-infective potential of natural products: How to develop a stronger in vitro ‘proof-of-concept’ Journal of Ethnopharmacology 106: 290–302) and subsequent methods papers. Such research is only meaningful if it contributes to our mechanistic understanding of anti-microbial effects, its specificity or identifies novel leads.
d) The dose ranges must be therapeutically relevant. While it will be impossible to define an exact cut-off, the literature in the field is now replete with studies which test extracts at implausibly high doses. Single dose studies will only be of relevance in exceptional circumstances (e.g. in case of specific complex pharmacological models). And of course, positive and negative controls must be included.
e) In order to establish therapeutic benefits, selectivity data are essential. How specific is the effect? Many compounds have non-selective in vitro effects and research on common compounds must be justified in terms of the potential therapeutic benefits. While such research may be relevant and have potential applications, authors will need to assess the specificity of a single compound or an extract rich in a well-studied compound (like rutin, curcumin, or quercitin) and provide evidence for the relevance and novelty of the approach.
f) Docking studies must be justified with affinity experiments, or other well established experimental methods to support a proposed mechanism of action. Algorithmic docking studies will not be accepted; these indicate if a compound will "fit" into a binding site but do not indicate the binding affinity or the ability to induce a conformational change.
The identification of the study material must be described well. All species are fully validated using Kew MPNS portal or The Plant List initiative or Plants of the World Online Of course, full botanical documentation is essential (i.e. a voucher specimen deposited in a recognised herbarium). A scan of the voucher(s) is welcome as supplementary material and encourage authors to include the coordinates of the location where the material had been collected.
- The composition of the study material must be described in sufficient detail. Chromatograms with a characterisation of the dominating compound(s) are preferable. If preparations are used which are available commercially quality parameters provided in pharmacopoeia must be provided. The material under study must be characterised using the methods of the relevant monograph
- If ‘pure’ compounds are used sufficient information on the level of purity must be included. Especially in in vitro models, the authors must be confident that the compounds are stable under the conditions used (for example, they do not degrade due to high concentrations of DMSO). A critical aspect that should be considered is how these assays and extraction protocols are linked to local and traditional uses. In this way, variables such as the solubility of the compound in the traditional preparation and in the analytical extraction protocol should be taken into consideration
- All chemical line structures must be drawn using a internationally accepted structure drawing programme, must be consistent and - if possible and relevant - the stereochemistry needs to be given.
c) Multiherbal preparations:
Very often multiherbal preparations are used. Full information on their composition (in terms of the botanical drugs / species included) and information on the rationale for studying this preparation needs to be included. It is essential that in these cases sufficient details are provided on the botanical (2a) and chemical (2b) characterisation.
3) Basic requirements and research ethics
Frontiers has very well developed guidelines relating to ethical aspects of a MS. Specifically, for Frontiers in Pharmacology (Ethnopharmacology) the following key requirements are essential:
a) The objectives of the research reported must be spelled out clearly and in detail. All MS must critically assess the scientific basis of the work and provide meaningful conclusions, which are based on a clear hypothesis / research question as defined in the introduction. Ethnopharmacological research must assess whether a compound or plant extract has a certain effect and it cannot be about ‘confirming an extract’s or compound’s effects or efficacy’.
b) Research must add new and scientifically substantive knowledge to our understanding of the pharmacology and use of medicinal plants. A key basis for this is a review of literature relevant to the pharmacological activity already reported on the species including possibly related taxa or compounds. This must be up-to-date, and clearly demonstrate the substantive addition to the literature the MS submitted represents. Simply using advanced measurements/techniques/protocols reproducing previous studies of the same plant product will only be accepted in exceptional circumstances (e.g. previously unknown, highly active components are discovered).
c) Compliance with all international ethical standards is essential. In the context of ethnopharmacology, the Convention on Biological Diversity and, most recently, the Nagoya Protocol are of particular relevance (https://www.cbd.int/abs/).
d) Research in ethnopharmacology is based on local and traditional knowledge often passed on orally over generations. Ultimately, research in this field must therefore benefit those populations who are or were the original keeper of this knowledge.
e) The use of animals must be justified in the context of novelty (see also part 1). It is ethically not acceptable to have yet another in vivo study on an already well-studied species, demonstrating some common activity (e.g. an anti-inflammatory effect studied in the rat-paw edema). The same is true for species which are chemically very similar (and generally are rich in common ingredient) to ones already studied pharmacologically. Such studies must ‘meet(s) the standards of rigor’ we expect in ethnopharmacology as defined in the Frontiers’ guidelines.
4) Other specific requirements
a) Studies focusing on local and traditional uses of plants (ethnopharmacological field studies) must be based on substantial, original data. The relevance of the MS in the context of previous studies in the geographical region must be spelled out clearly and it must contribute to the understanding of the therapeutic uses of plant species and inform experimental or clinical studies This includes an adequate presentation and discussion of the data. Also, social science centered studies (e.g. ethnobotanical studies or health system research of local and traditional medical systems) are welcome. This journal subscribes to the ConSEFS standards including any updates.
b) In case of reviews, we expect clearly defined scientific aims (objectives), a comprehensive, critical and specific assessment of the relevant information linking local and other medical uses to the biomedical and bioscientific evidence. Reviews need to define future research needs and priorities. It is essential that the scientific quality of the original articles cited is assessed. If pharmacological studies are reviewed, particular attention must be paid to assessing the quality of the studies.
c) Food plants are commonly reported to have pharmacological effects. Frontiers in Ethnopharmacology focuses on therapeutic benefits of such species and not on the general food/nutritional properties.
Keywords: natural antimicrobial peptides, antimicrobial drug resistance, natural products, antibiotic, drug discovery
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.