Like 0

Human gut microbiota: onset and shaping through life stages and perturbations

Edited by: Lorenza Putignani

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 978-2-88919-087-4

Product Name: Frontiers Research Topic Ebook

The latest Edition of this Ebook can be found here.

Taxa distribution and density of gut microbiota habitants diverge in different individuals and is modulated by diverse determinants of temporal and spatial variability. Until the moment of birth, the gastrointestinal tract (GI) of a normal foetus is sterile. During birth and thereafter, bacteria from mother and surrounding environment colonize the infant’s gut. Rapidly after the birth, bacteria start to appear in the faeces in a few hours and reach 108 to 1010 per gram of faeces within a few days. The epithelium at the interface between intestinal microbiota and lymphoid tissue plays a critical role in shaping the mucosal immune response. When commensal/pathogenic bacteria homeostasis is broken up, the perturbation leads to immunological impairment and disease.

Gut imbalance occurring during early life can lead to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Hirschsprung’s disease, respiratory and chronic pulmonary disease, immunological impairment, obesity and metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular risks, etc., along all life stages. Investigation on individuality of gut microbiota onset and modulation requires to speculate on genetic and epigenetic affecting factors. Indeed, relationship between breast feeding, gut microbes, and immune system response appears crucial. However, classical microbiology is underpowered by its inability to provide unbiased representation of gut microbiota. Failure to cultivate in vitro the majority (60–80%) of microbiota taxa hampers a fulfilling description. The advent of high-throughput-omics-based methods, through the holistic view of the “systems biology”, is opening new avenues in the knowledge of the gut ecosystem. In the coming years, the plasticity of the microbiota will be even exploited to provide new categories of therapeutics reflecting specific microbe-microbe modulation and microbe-host interaction.

Modern microbiology may concur in addressing one of the most complicated challenges of current medicine, which relies on the delivery of effective therapies tailored to exact biology or biological state of an individual, in order to enable the so called “personalized healthcare solutions”.

This Research Topic covers several aspects of gut microbiota, mainly focused on the microbiologist's point of view, but extending to complementary approaches coming from clinical research, immunology, genetics, genomics and proteomics.

Like 0
Related Content
About the Foodborne Pathogen Campylobacter
A significant increase in the prevalence of campylobacteriosis cases...
Molecular Pathogenesis of Pneumococcus
Streptococcus pneumoniae has been for decades the number one bacterial...
People also looked at
The Molecular Mechanisms of Regulatory T cell Immunosuppression
Ever since Regulatory T cells (T-Regs) were first defined as...
Human health and disease in a microbial world
Humans and other mammals have co-evolved with trillions of...
The Molecular Mechanisms of Chronic Inflammation Development
Inflammation is critical for the development of many complex diseases...
Microbial genomics challenge Darwin
The 200th anniversary of Darwin’s birthday was celebrated in 2009,...
Volitional inhibition: The gateway for an efficient control of voluntary movements
Being able to suppress a pending action is a fundamental ability for...

© 2007 - 2018 Frontiers Media S.A. All Rights Reserved