About this Research Topic
Incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes in youth are increasing worldwide, on the other hand, disease prevention progress slower than hoped. It is estimated that the incidence of type 1 diabetes among children and adolescents under the age of 15 years increase around 3% with strong geographic differences. As a consequence, more than 96,000 children and adolescents under 15 years are diagnosed with type 1 diabetes annually. Clinical presentation of type 1 diabetes is often associated with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which may lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. DKA at disease onset may arise from delayed diagnosis and is associated with both long–term poor glycemic control and subsequent recurrent episodes of DKA.
The increasing number of children being diagnosed has important implication for health care systems for both biologic and economic efforts required.
The significant progress in improving the prediction of type 1 diabetes has not yet been paralleled by safe and efficacious intervention strategies aimed at preventing the disease. An update on successes and failures alike will be very useful to a better understanding of future trends in the partially explored field of prevention.
The increasing variety of insulins, including biosynthetic human insulin and rapid- and long-acting insulin analogs, have dramatically changed the management of type 1 diabetes over the past 30 years and it is now possible to more closely mimic physiologic insulin secretion. Adjunctive therapies, likewise, may overcome some of the physiology limits of type 1 diabetes treatment.
Thanks to new technologies advances, a dramatic transformation on the treatment of diabetes with a better achievement of blood glucose control is ongoing. Continuous blood glucose monitoring, new generations of insulin pumps, hybrid, and full closed-loop systems help patients to reach glycemic targets unreachable before. Moreover, they have a huge impact on the quality of life, have an impact on acute and chronic complications, biologic and economic costs, and requires changes in the clinical and educational approach.
The aim of this Research Topic is to provide an update on modern management and monitoring of diabetes in youth, focusing on prediction, epidemiology, treatment, technology, and complications.
The following topics will be covered in the collection:
• Continuous glucose monitoring
• Diabetic ketoacidosis
• Prediction and prevention of type 1 diabetes
• Insulin treatment in children with type 1 diabetes
• Vascular complications in children with type 1 diabetes
• Closed-loop systems and the future of type 1 diabetes treatment
• Insulin pump therapy in children with type 1 diabetes
• New insight in the incidence of type 1 diabetes
• Severe hypoglycemia in children with type 1 diabetes
• Monitoring of type 1 diabetes
Keywords: Childhood diabetes, Epidemiology, Prediction, Technology, Monitoring
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