About this Research Topic
Today, many diseases are considered to be multifactorial. Their causes include genetic predispositions and exposition to environmental factors, such as infectious agents, nutrients, xenobiotics, drugs, or stress, which could influence disease development in the future. The Developmental Origin of Health And Disease (DOHAD) emphasizes the importance of the first 1000 days period (from conception to the 2 years of life). These 1000 days, according to the World Health Organization, constitute a unique window of sensitivity in which the environment (nutritional, ecological, economic, psychosocial, and lifestyles) influences epigenetics, programming health, and the future risk of illness of an individual for life. Thus, identifying factors that may affect health over time, as well as critical periods of exposure, remains a major challenge.
It has been recognized that the gut microbiota represents a key regulator of health through its multiple interactions with the host. Indeed, changes in the gut microbial composition, known as dysbiosis, were observed in several human diseases, including gastrointestinal diseases, immune diseases, metabolic diseases and neurologic disorders. The establishment of the microbiota, which takes place during the 1000 days period, could be part of the critical factors involved in the early-life programming of health. It is a complex, sequential process, influenced by many determinants (i.e. cesarean delivery, type of diet, antibiotic therapy, gestational age, and the environment), though the importance of each of these factors has not been deeply evaluated. Moreover, perinatal determinants may also affect the bacterial colonization pattern, which could ultimately result in a process of dysbiosis.
The aim of this Research Topic is therefore to take stock of the long-term health consequences of early dysbiosis and the care of newborns and their mothers in order to limit deleterious consequences later in life. An overarching goal is to evaluate the importance of the microbiota during the first 1000 days, highlight the role of some bacterial groups, and illuminate preventive and/or curative opportunities.
Research articles to be published in this Topic (original research articles, commentaries, perspectives, opinion papers and reviews) should contribute to understanding:
· How can perinatal factors influence the establishment of the microbiota?
· What are the early-changes in the microbiota that are involved in long-term pathology of (especially) non-communicable diseases?
· What is the critical period for these microbiota changes i.e. the period in which these changes have the greatest impact?
· What is the role of the sequential process for gut microbiota and the biological mechanisms linking microbiota and DOHAD?
· Can biotherapy such as probiotics, microbiota transplantation or others be used in early life to prevent these long-term effects?
The range of disciplines may include microbiologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, etc.
Dr Waligora-Dupriet, a Topic Editor for this collection, has collaborative research contracts on probiotics (but not specifically on this topic) with PiLeJe and Danone-Nutricia research.
Dr Martin-Rosique, a Topic Editor for this collection, has collaborative research contracts on probiotics (but not specifically on this topic) with LNC Therapeutics, Pileje and Exeliom.
Keywords: Microbiota, Newborn, DOHAD, Biotherapy
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.