Endocrine and immune systems communicate through numerous anatomical and hormonal exchanges. Interactions between these systems are believed to be critical for the preservation of a homeostatic equilibrium. A disproportion or alterations in these systems, in response to illness, stress, damage and/or ...
Endocrine and immune systems communicate through numerous anatomical and hormonal exchanges. Interactions between these systems are believed to be critical for the preservation of a homeostatic equilibrium. A disproportion or alterations in these systems, in response to illness, stress, damage and/or metabolic alterations, can lead to substantial changes in immune responsiveness and susceptibility to infections and autoimmune disease states. A greater understanding of the interplay between these systems may afford valuable insights into how interference inside these compartments may influence the host’s ability to regulate inflammatory response, disease progress or reparative response. Furthermore, a more exhaustive understanding of these pathways may certainly yield novel therapeutics and interventional approaches to control immune and systemic responses to disease, injury and stress. The interplay between the neuroendocrine and immune systems is nowadays well established. Actually, these systems use a number of analogous ligands and receptors to provide a functional network of communication. A number of hormones and neuropeptides are known to contribute in many aspects of immune response both in health and pathology. Lymphocytes, monocytes and innumerable other immune cell subsets (natural killer, T Regulatory cells etc.) express receptors for several of these ligands including neurotransmitters and neuropeptides such as steroids, insulin, lactogenic hormones, somatostatins, adipokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin), gastric peptides, opioids, brain and vascular peptides. Likewise, receptors for immune-derived cytokines and chemokines have also been identified on nervous system cells and within classic endocrine organs. Usually, these regulatory nets form a negative feedback loop by which homeostasis is maintained between the immune and central nervous systems. Disruptions within these systems may lead to abnormal immune activation or suppression. Thus, hormonal and neuropeptide mediators provide a functional link between the endocrine, central nervous and immune systems involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal/thyroid axis. Moreover, nowadays, a novel system interaction is emerging between the white adipose tissue, possibly the biggest endocrine organ of the body and immune system.
I am pleased to host this Frontiers Research Topic on a very amazing and up-to-date topic of neuroendocrine interactions in immune /inflammatory diseases. In this exciting research topic, we aim to provide a comprehensive state of the art overview of the emerging role of neuroendocrine interaction in immune inflammatory diseases. We shall highlight critical aspects of this theme and we hope that the proposed research topic will provide a broad snapshot of the matter.
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