About this Research Topic
Vibrio is a genus of ubiquitous bacteria found in a wide variety of aquatic and marine habitats; of the more than 100 described Vibrio spp., about 12 cause infections in humans, while others can cause infections in marine animals. Vibrio cholerae can cause cholera, a severe diarrhoeal disease that can be quickly fatal if untreated and is typically transmitted via contaminated water and person-to-person contact. Non-cholera Vibrio spp. (for example, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus) cause vibriosis - infections normally acquired through exposure to sea water or through consumption of raw or undercooked contaminated seafood.
Non-cholera Vibrio spp. can lead to several clinical manifestations, including self-limiting gastroenteritis, wound infections, septicemia and mortality. The incidence of vibriosis is rising, perhaps owing in part to the spread of Vibrio spp. favored by climate change and rising seawater temperature. The reported incidence of Vibrio spp. infections increased 12-fold from 1988 to 2012. Considering that Vibrio spp. is a genus of the leading opportunistic pathogens that causes severe infections in both humans and marine animals, a better understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of Vibrio spp. infection is urgently needed to guide the effective prevention and therapy for Vibrio spp. infection.
At present, there is still a long way to elucidate the pathogenic mechanisms of Vibrio spp. On the one hand, although numerous Vibrio spp. virulence factors, including quorum sensing (QS), extracellular proteases, motility, siderophore-dependent iron uptake systems, biofilm, adhesion, T3SS and T6SS have been characterized, several aspects of their underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. On the other hand, the interaction of Vibrio spp. with hosts and their resident microbiota represents an incredibly intricate biological process, involving numerous organisms from different kingdoms of life, all actively contributing to the balance between pathogenesis and clearance, which may shape Vibrio spp. pathogenicity and host immune responses, thus further research is needed on these aspects.
This Research Topic aims to present the current state of knowledge in this exciting and fast-developing field of Vibrio spp. virulence regulation and host interactions, especially mechanisms related to the cellular and molecular biological events that occur in cells of hosts and pathogens during their interaction within the harsh environment of the infected hosts. We welcome the submission of Original Research, Review, Mini-Review, and Opinion articles that cover different aspects of vibriosis, which include, but are not limited to:
1) What are the genetic factors responsible for Vibrio spp. to cause disease;
2) How Vibrio spp. sense their environment and modulate the expression of virulence genes;
3) How signaling systems in the eukaryotic host can be manipulated by Vibrio spp. with secretion systems and bacterial effectors;
4) Host immune response against Vibrio spp. infection;
5) Interactions in complex infection settings comprising of Vibrio spp., their hosts and the resident gut microbiota;
6) Nutritional immunity, the struggle for nutrient metals between hosts and Vibrio spp.
Keywords: Vibrio spp., Virulence Regulation, Immune Response, Host-Pathogen Interaction
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