About this Research Topic
Bacteria need to adapt rapidly to sudden environmental changes. This versatility makes them particularly rich in regulatory switches which couple the environmental contingency to their metabolic potential. The regulatory mechanisms work at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, with several genes controlled by complex circuits that involve both types of regulations. Numerous and remarkable examples of translation regulation of bacterial genes have been amassed, stressing the importance played by this type of genetic control in this group of microorganisms.
Translational control can indeed provide a fine-tuned answer to a sudden change whereby an environmental input is immediately transformed into an output at the level of the proteome. This layer of regulation occurs with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors such as mRNA, sRNA, nucleic acid binding proteins or the ribosome itself, which can differently fold and interact with one another depending on the state of the cell. Also RNA modifications, which contribute to ribosome heterogeneity, can have an impact on the extent of translation.
Microbiology, genetics, molecular and structural biology studies have all contributed to disentangle the regulatory circuits and clarify the molecular aspects of a huge variety of translation control mechanisms. But many others wait to be discovered or reanalyzed, also in light of the new available tools based on the deep sequencing analysis, such as the RNA-seq based techniques (Ribo-seq, Ribo-tRNA-seq, etc...) which have recently been used to assess translation efficiency and its regulation during adaptation.
The aim of this Research Topic is to collect articles (including original research, reviews, perspectives, commentaries) concerning examples of translational control in bacteria involving cis or trans-acting factors and/or mechanisms which explain these regulations.
In particular, this Research Topic will focus on studies that investigate and discuss:
- riboswitches and thermosensors;
- alternative translation initiation sites;
- sRNAs which interfere with translation;
- IFs and ribosomes;
- translation and stress;
- impact of RNA modifications and their dynamics in adaptive responses;
- tRNA pools;
- codon bias;
- ribosome heterogeneity.
- relationship between the cellular localization of the translational machinery and regulation.
Keywords: translation initiation, RNA, ribosome, translational control, protein synthesis
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