About this Research Topic
In recent years, both invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation techniques have received growing attention in the field of movement disorders, especially for the treatment of dystonia, hereditary spastic paraplegias, and tremors. An increasing body of evidence confirms significant effects relating to the neurophysiological and clinical long-term outcome, thus affecting the overall quality of life. In particular, brain stimulation has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of different movement disorders at an early stage, improving at the same time the effects of drugs and physical therapies, through different and complementary mechanisms of action.
Novel invasive techniques (such as the “adaptive” Deep Brain Stimulation, or aDBS) have shown promising results in later stages, when pharmacological therapies have a very limited efficacy. These novel approaches may also improve symptoms related to side-effects of conventional treatments or disease progression, such as speech disturbances, behavioral changes and the freezing of gait (FOG). Finally, especially in the field of non-invasive stimulation (tDCS, tACS, rTMS, TBS, PAS), novel targets have been proposed from the motor cortex to the spinal cord. These highlight the possibility to simultaneously modulate different areas and brain networks, thus increasing the therapeutic potential and further reducing intake of drugs. Results are encouraging, but there are still some critical issues to be clarified, ranging from the selection of patients, anatomical-physiological targets, and treatment duration, to the long-term efficacy and potential side effects. Additionally, the mechanisms of action at cellular or physiological levels are still only partly understood. Lastly, the use of brain stimulation techniques may help improve our knowledge about disease mechanisms based on mapping of healthy and pathological neuronal interactions at distributed neuronal networks spanning the brain and spinal cord. These studies will contribute not only to an in-depth understanding of neuronal changes, but will also aid the development of targeted therapeutic interventions.
This Research Topic welcomes submissions from authors interested in these new features and approaches for the study and treatment of movement disorders. Original Research and Reviews will be welcome on the following topics:
• Conditioning protocols in animal and/or human models to delineate neuronal mechanisms of action of tDCS, tACS, rTMS, TBS, PAS;
• Intervention protocols in animal and/or human models utilizing tDCS, tACS, rTMS, TBS, PAS to delineate reorganization and neuroplasticity in hyperkinetic movement disorders;
• Modeling of neuronal network activity by tDCS, tACS, rTMS, TBS, PAS;
• Development of Neurotechnologies as they relate to methodological issues in movement disorders;
• Novel biomarkers for Deep Brain Stimulation in dystonia and other hyperkinetic movement disorders;
• Recording Local Fields Potentials (LFPs) in Dystonia: an under-estimated field of research. Their significance and possible implications in the pathogenetic process.
Keywords: brain stimulation, invasive, non-invasive, treatment
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