About this Research Topic
Antimicrobials and chemotherapeutics that target biofilm modes of growth are particularly sought after in clinical applications, particularly following the surgical implantation of medical devices. Many different strains of bacteria and fungi can form biofilm, forming attached communities on surfaces of implanted materials, tissue, or other bacteria. Biofilm is critical in the pathogenesis of implant-related infections, such as periprosthetic joint replacement. Biofilm-associated infection is particularly difficult to treat, requiring doses of antimicrobials several orders of magnitude higher to eradicate than their planktonic counterparts. The tolerance of biofilm to both antimicrobials as well as action of immune cells derives from a complex interplay of survival strategies of microorganisms. A small subset of bacteria within biofilm form persister cells, which have altered metabolism that avoids common mechanisms of action for antibiotics. The extracellular polymeric substance produced by microorganisms may also limit diffusion of molecules and immune cells into biofilm communities. Biofilm also secrete factors that manipulate immune cells into quiescent states to avoid phagocytosis.
Therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat microbial biofilm include several approaches, including local delivery of antimicrobials, implant surface modifications, natural or synthetic biofilm-active molecules, and nanotherapeutics. This research topic invites Original Research articles on topics including but not limited to the following:
• Prevention of biofilm formation
• Treatment of implant-associated biofilm infection
• Etiology of clinical biofilm infection
• Diagnosis and imaging of biofilm-associated microorganisms
• Local delivery of antimicrobials with activity against biofilm
Reviews, Mini-reviews, Hypothesis and Theory, Perspective, that explore these topics are also invited.
Keywords: Biofilm, persister
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