About this Research Topic
Over the past decade, research into the gut–brain axis has grown exponentially, as microbiologists, neuroscientists and nutrition scientists have revised the understandings of how seemingly separate components interact in the human body. As gut microbiota processes food, and orally administered drugs, they manufacture a huge assortment of products, many of which are trafficked through the body via their absorption into the blood stream, or influence the central nervous system via the enteric nervous system or gut-resident immune cells. In turn, any changes in the brain function and its chemicals will affect the gut function and its microbial inhabitants. Indeed, alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota and their metabolic activity are associated with disorders like depression, schizophrenia, ADHD, addiction, and Parkinson’s disease.
The human gastrointestinal tract is inhabited by trillions of commensal bacteria collectively known as gut microbiota. Gut microbiota sense their environment and respond by releasing metabolites, some of which are key regulators of human health and key players in disease. In the gut and brain, bacterial metabolites appear to be a significant physiological factor that impact the brain functionality and in turn has consequences on the well-being of the host. Despite their importance, this chemical communication between microbes and their hosts is yet starting to emerge. Understanding how gut microbiota contribute to the occurrence of neuropsychological disorders will thus fuel the development of novel prevention and treatment approaches.
The aim of the current Research Topic is to cover promising, recent, and novel research trends in the chemical interaction between the gut microbiota and gut-brain axis field. Areas to be covered in this Research Topic may include, but are not limited to:
• Development of models to understand microbiota-gut brain axis interactions
• Advanced analytical methods to identify microbiota-related metabolites
• Therapeutic strategies (probiotics, faecal microbial transplant)
• Newly discovered microbial metabolites with proven/potential effect in the brain
Keywords: Chemicals, Neurodegenerative disorders, Diet, Biomarkers, Neuron-Microbe interaction, Metabolomics
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