About this Research Topic
Aquaculture is the breeding, rearing, and harvesting of fish, shellfish, algae, and other organisms in all types of water environments, especially for human consumption. It is expected that by 2030, 62 % of all seafood produced for human consumption will come from aquaculture. In this context, marine aquaculture produces numerous species including salmonids fish, oysters, clams, mussels, shrimp, seaweeds, among others. Thus, there are many ways to farm marine shellfish, including “seeding” small shellfish on the seafloor or by growing them in bottom or floating cages. Otherwise, marine fish farming is typically done in net pens in the water or in tanks on land. Pathogens including viruses, parasites and bacteria, threatens quality and production of aquaculture. In fact, it is known that several bacterial diseases cause millions of dollars of losses in aquaculture each year.
Microbial biofilms are one of the most relevant drivers of chronic and recurrent infections. Biofilm formation can correlate group activity with cell density dependence using an intercellular signaling system known as quorum sensing (QS). This can modify gene expression in response to the perception of population density. Furthermore, within a biofilm, microbial cells show increased tolerance against the immune system defense mechanisms of the host. Thus, studies in several bacterial pathogens have demonstrated a strong relationship between the biofilm formation and the Antimicrobial resistance (AMR). In addition, many bacterial pathogens are able to survive in the marine water for extended periods of time. This ability could be related to the development of biofilm where the bacteria would be embedded, therefore suggesting adaptive survival under stressful marine conditions. As a consequence, these bacterial strategies could be related to persistence of infectious diseases outbreaks in the aquaculture.
In aquatic systems, bacterial pathogenesis mechanisms remain a mystery due to their complicated and understudied genetics and, in some cases, lack of the efficient molecular manipulation methods. AMR represents a significant challenge in controlling of infectious diseases and constitutes a substantial worldwide economic burden. In the aquaculture context, the overuse or misuse of antimicrobial as antibiotics and other drugs in the course of culture generates AMR pathogens, and makes many of the current drugs ineffective, causing huge economic loss and food safety related issues, thus constituting a problem for the public health. Beyond the natural mechanisms of bacterial AMR, bacteria could acquire AMR genes from other microorganisms by horizontal gene exchange, which provide survival opportunity under selective pressure of antimicrobials.
Thus, several pathogenic mechanisms and survival strategies of the most of the bacteria affecting aquaculture species have been scarcely studied, which are one of the major gaps of knowledge to explore effective drugs and vaccines, among others.
The aim of this Research Topic is to gather the most updated studies on bacterial pathogenic mechanisms, with special emphasis on biofilm formation and QS synthesis processes, and acquisition of antibiotic resistance of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture, as well as, deliver ideas on the role of these biological process on the host immune response and provide more inspiration for the develop of control and prevention strategies.
or this research topic, we welcome Original Research, Review and Mini Review articles focusing, but not limited to, the following themes:
• Marine bacteria transmission/invasion mechanisms.
• Marine bacteria gene/protein functions, including secretion systems.
• Nutrients/metals uptake mechanisms.
• Biofilm contribution in aquaculture species-associated infectious diseases.
• QS in pathogenic marine bacteria.
• AMR/tolerance in biofilm-related infections.
• Marine bacteria and coinfection with other pathogens (bacteria, viruses and parasites)
Keywords: Marine Bacteria, Quorum Sensing, Biofilm, Antimicrobial Resistance, Nutrients/metals uptake
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