About this Research Topic
The establishment of a proper microenvironment in which the in vivo-like complexity of a specific tissue is recapitulated, represents the common key issue in many tissue engineering applications. Achieving this is a priority for functional biomaterials used to repair a damaged tissue site and for the building up of in vitro platform that acts as reliable model.
This challenging aspect can be fulfilled by using engineering approaches which can modulate physiological parameters resembling real tissue microenvironments. The development of highly sophisticated tools, in terms of cell structure and functions, require the synergistic interaction of different technologies including biomaterials, bioactive molecules, different cell types, bioreactors and innovative microfluidic techniques. Their utilization covers several aspects of tissue engineering investigations. The accurate tuning of specific features allows us to mimic different tissue districts for several purposes, ranging from therapeutic in vivo application to in vitro organ modeling.
Traditional cell culture systems face some important limitations, mainly related to the difficulty in recapitulating the proper three-dimensional cytoarchitecture. To overcome this problem, many functional biomaterials have been developed with the aim to enhance the cell-material interaction. They rely on the use of biomimetic material able to offer specific cues at the cellular interface. Biomimetic design approaches include functionalization with different biomolecules that improve the overall interaction, boosting cell recruitment, adhesion and differentiation. The promotion of these fundamental steps is quite relevant in the biomedical field for guiding tissue-specific regeneration. The development of multifunctional in vitro platforms aims to generate investigational tools in which the operative conditions are strictly controlled, thus generating a well-defined microenvironment. Intercellular communication is optimized by the use of dynamically controlled systems as bioreactors and organ-on-chip devices. Their ideal fluid dynamic conditions ensure oxygen and nutrient diffusion in the cell compartment, acting as a vascularized in vitro tool. Dynamic devices allow us to reproduce precise spatio-temporal control of cellular microenvironment, offering the possibility to explore various events in physiological and pathological conditions. They are promising devices with efficient high throughput experimentation, that opens alternative paths for testing new therapeutic compounds, modeling diseases, and performing cytotoxicity tests with new perspectives for personalized medicine.
The Research Topic aims to provide the latest advancement in the field of biomimetic therapeutic material and in vitro multifunctional platforms that offer an optimal surrounding for cell growth and tissue reconstruction as investigational tools. Original Research article and Reviews will cover the following topic:
• Biomimetic material
• Biofunctionalized material
• Biomaterial mediated tissue repair
• Bioreactor for tissue reconstruction
• Disease modeling
• Drug testing
Keywords: Biomimetic Interface, Functional Biomaterial, Tissue Repair, In Vitro Tools, Disease Modeling, Drug Testing, Bioreactor, Microfluidic Devices
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