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Human T lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) were the first human retroviruses described and brought with them technological innovations of the traditional isolation of human viruses which favored new methodologies for discovery and rapid diagnosis of emerging viruses. Most importantly, they shed ...

Human T lymphotropic viruses 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) were the first human retroviruses described and brought with them technological innovations of the traditional isolation of human viruses which favored new methodologies for discovery and rapid diagnosis of emerging viruses. Most importantly, they shed light into several diseases which were in search of an etiology, including Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) which had been described in Japan in 1977, and a form of spastic paraparesis in the Caribbean (TSP) which was subsequently renamed HTLV-associated myelopathy (HAM), and Infective Dermatitis, since when multiple inflammatory conditions have been associated with HTLVs, mainly with HTLV-1.

During their replication HTLV-1/2 are capable of integrating the newly formed viral cDNA molecule into the host genome and persist as a lifelong infection with consequences that are relevant to understand their biology, clinical outcome, laboratory diagnosis and the epidemiology HTLV-1/2 which influences its geographical dispersion, modes of transmission and the ways to prevent and control infection.

In March 2021 WHO launched a technical report for the first time on this worldwide neglected infection which is a significant marker to discuss the several aspects of the infection. Although HTLV-1/2 were discovered almost 40 years ago, their epidemiological impact remains incompletely described in almost all countries and many outstanding questions need to be addressed from prevalence of impact to burden of disease. From its origin, emergence and transmission to the human host, define clear figures of its frequency among different population groups, its heavy burden to human populations and most recently, the possibility to produce a vaccine to act synergistically with other ways to eliminate the virus as a human threat. It is expected that by addressing these questions, a comprehensive understanding of the infection and epidemiology will help to provide a better approach towards prevention and control of the virus.

This Research Topic will focus on the “Prevention and Control of HTLV-1/2”. A recent initiative of the WHO was launched to eliminate/eradicate HTLV-1/2 infections and for the first time dedicated a Technical Report to shed light over this neglected infection. We believe that the Special Issue dealing with major articles in the field of prevention and control will achieve the state of the art which could be used in different places to start efficient public health policies to fight against the infection.

We will accept several types of articles, including Original Research, Review, Perspective, and Mini Review. Abstract requirement is optional, but Guest Editors should be contacted beforehand to confirm the scope of the manuscript to that of the Research Topic.

We particularly welcome contributions that include, but are not limited to, the following topics:
- Strong and significant prevalence studies that allow methodological approaches to define targets for prevention and control of HTLV-1/2;
- Differences in outcomes according to sex, age groups, geographic location, and ethnicity;
- Surveillance on the occurrence and impact of co-infections;
- Global support to people living with HTLV-1/2 (PLHTLV) as a strategic approach to secondary and tertiary control levels of prevention;
- Approaches for the prevention and control of HTLV-1/2;
- Experimental studies focusing on the prevention and control of HTLV-1/2;
- How to support elimination of HTLV-1/2 among vulnerable communities with high risk of transmission [female sex workers (FSW), men who have sex with men (MSM), indigenous peoples, quilombos, isolated groups, etc.];
- Acceptance of public health policies;
- Prevention and management of HTLV infection in healthcare workers;
- Economic analysis of public health policies.

Keywords: Surveillance, Public health policies, PLHTLV, Vulnerable communities, prevalance


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