About this Research Topic
Due to an increase in endoscopic (screening) examinations and the continuous improvement of the optical quality of endoscopic equipment, T1 carcinomas in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) are increasingly detected and diagnosed. However, this group is very heterogeneous with regard to the risk of lymph node metastasis (LM): e.g., 7-17% of colonic T1 carcinomas already have LM, which depends significantly on the depth of invasion. Therefore, correct endoscopic assessment of the depth of invasion of these lesions has a great prognostic and therapeutic importance. A recent tool discovered for the early detection of gastrointestinal cancers includes circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) and other circulating biomarkers, commonly known as liquid biopsies. There are various testing platforms which are helping the understanding of tumor biology regarding tumor heterogeneity and tumor evolution. In addition, histopathological markers predictive of LM may be useful for decision making after endoscopic resection.
Meticulous endoscopic characterization of gastrointestinal neoplasias (GN) is crucial for the clinical outcome. Hereby the indication and type of resection (endoscopically, - en-bloc or piece-meal, or surgical resection) are determined. By means of established image-enhanced (IEE) and magnification endoscopy (ME) GN can be characterized in terms of malignancy and invasion depth. Currently, by means of optical diagnosis, today's gastrointestinal endoscopy is capable of estimating the histological subtype, exact lateral spread, and depth of invasion of a lesion. The prerequisites for this are an exact knowledge of the anatomical structures, the endoscopic classifications based on them, and a systematic learning process, which can be supported by training courses. It is questionable whether the advances in deep learning / artificial intelligence will replace a meticulous endoscopic diagnosis by experienced endoscopists. So there is still a need for training and innovation in this field. More prospective clinical studies are required, especially in the field of Barrett's esophagus and duodenal neoplasia.
Our goal is to promote information on latest advances and upcoming technologies in this field through publication of important manuscripts. A special focus of this Research Topic is on optical diagnosis of premalignant lesions by means of IEE in the GIT. This Research Topic aims to publish full-length Original Articles regarding basic and translational research in the field. We will include Reviews covering the broad scope of endoscopic detection and histopathological or molecular characterization of GN.
Please note: manuscripts consisting solely of bioinformatics or computational analysis of public genomic or transcriptomic databases which are not accompanied by validation (independent cohort or biological validation in vitro or in vivo) are out of scope for this section and will not be accepted as part of this Research Topic.
Keywords: endoscopy, neoplasia, magnification endoscopy, chromoendoscopy, invasion depth, detection, histopathology
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.