About this Research Topic
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogenous group of membrane-enclosed particles with a wide range of sizes. Large EVs (200nm-5um) include microvesicles, oncosomes, and apoptotic bodies. Small EVs (20-200nm) embrace exomeres, exosomes and amphisomes. EV secretion is a common mechanism for cell-to-cell communication, present in multiple physiological processes such as pregnancy, antigen presentation or inflammation. In addition, EVs have achieved relevance due to their participation in numerous diseases such as neurological disorders, cardiovascular diseases, or cancer.
Melanoma usually display an enhanced secretion of extracellular vesicles. Multiples studies have highlighted the links between EV release and melanoma progression, especially in the context of exosome secretion. The pro-tumor roles of EVs include the formation of tumor-fostering niches and pre-metastatic niches, lymphangiogenesis, and immunomodulation.
Tumor EVs are loaded with molecules that are specific to the secretory cell and thus, provides DNA, protein, or RNA-based signatures of tumor material. These can be used for melanoma diagnosis, treatment monitoring, or detection of minimal residual disease. Furthermore, EVs have interesting inherent biological properties – they are efficient in their internalization by target cells, produce signals that prevent the body from degrading them, and have surface molecules that can stimulate or repress the immune system. Together, these make EVs attractive potential carriers of nanomedicine applications.
In this context of emerging biological and biotechnological relevance of EVs, this research topic aims to enrich the knowledge about the wide spectrum of functions that EVs accomplish in the context of skin cancer. Largely, this will cover the roles of EVs in melanoma progression but also the potential of EV-based applications to target and to diagnose this skin cancer.
We invite authors to provide new insights in the following subjects:
• The biogenesis and release of extracellular vesicles in tumours
• Tumor EV cargo: their use as biomarkers for cancer detection and roles in forming the premetastatic niche and tumor environment
• The interplay between tumor EVs, the immune system, and chemoresistance
• The potential of EV-based nanomedicine in targeting tumors
•EV-based liquid biopsy for melanoma diagnosis or monitoring
Keywords: melanoma, extracellular vesicle, skin cancer
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