About this Research Topic

Manuscript Submission Deadline 17 October 2022

The intestinal tract of a healthy adult contains about 1.5 kg of bacteria, which is approximately equal to the number of human cells, called the gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota is significantly associated with a variety of pathological and physiological processes and is even ...

The intestinal tract of a healthy adult contains about 1.5 kg of bacteria, which is approximately equal to the number of human cells, called the gut microbiota. Recent studies have shown that gut microbiota is significantly associated with a variety of pathological and physiological processes and is even known as the second brain of the human body. Gut microbiota-mediated immunomodulatory effects play an important role in diabetes mellitus (DM) and tumor immunity. Hänninen, Arno et al. demonstrated that Akkermansia muciniphila transfer promoted mucus production, increased expression of antimicrobial peptide Reg3γ, and lowered serum endotoxin levels and islet toll-like receptor expression, thereby promoting regulatory immunity and delaying diabetes development in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. According to the analysis of fecal microbiome samples from melanoma patients undergoing anti-programmed cell death 1 protein immunotherapy, it was indicated that there was significantly higher alpha diversity and relative abundance of bacteria of the Ruminococcaceae family in responding patients, and systemic and antitumor immunity was enhanced in responding patients with a favorable gut microbiome. However, the causal relationship between altered gut microbiota composition and DM or tumor immunity remains to be elucidated.
Immunomodulatory effects of the altered profile of gut microbiota play an important role in diabetes mellitus and tumor immunity. In this Research Topic, we aim to explore intestinal microflora profiles and the specific processes by which bacterial components, metabolites, and other mediators of intestinal microflora interact with the host to affect the immunity of patients with diabetes mellitus or cancer. Host immune responses are an extremely complex process, and in-depth exploration of the gut microbiota-host-disease relationship will be helpful to identify potential therapeutic targets for diabetes mellitus and cancer.
We encourage the exploration of the etiology and factors influencing diabetes mellitus and tumor immunity from an intestinal microecological perspective with the aim of addressing these challenging questions. Both Original Research and Review articles are welcomed here, including, but not limited to, the following research contents:
1. Correlation analysis of gut microbiota composition with diabetes mellitus and tumor immunity;
2. Molecules of intestinal microflora affecting host immune responses;
3. Mechanisms of specific intestinal microflora affecting the development of diabetes mellitus and tumor immunity;
4. Molecular mechanisms of bacterial components, metabolites, and other mediators of intestinal microflora interacting with the host immune system;
5. Particularly welcome is the exploration of the causal relationship between intestinal microflora/metabolism and diabetes mellitus or tumor immunity through clinical research, animal experiments, and cellular and molecular experiments.

Keywords: gut microbiota


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