Research Topic

Alloimmune Response from Regenerative Medicine

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While an intimate relationship exists between the immune system and tissues regeneration and repair, the main concern of regenerative strategies whether cell-, biomaterial-, or gene-based is the host immune response. The genetics of regeneration include an immune component, and the immune cells through their ...

While an intimate relationship exists between the immune system and tissues regeneration and repair, the main concern of regenerative strategies whether cell-, biomaterial-, or gene-based is the host immune response. The genetics of regeneration include an immune component, and the immune cells through their powerful influence in shaping many contexts of repair and development are important regulators of regeneration success. Lessons from highly regenerative organisms established that successful regeneration involves innate and adaptive immunity. Then, delivering regenerative therapies could rely on mastering the complex immune/inflammatory network of cells regulating tissue and wound homeostasis to “prepare the ground” for subsequent tissue repair.

Many recent regenerative strategies are now focusing on triggering immunomodulation and resolving inflammation to regenerate and repair injured tissues and organs. From this standpoint, stem cells isolated from various tissues including bone marrow, amniotic fluid, cardiac or even the placenta, exhibit profound anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory effects on a range of innate and adaptive immune cells. Whether in suspension or within bio-matrixes, stem cells-based strategies are therefore, promising mean of regeneration and repair. While allogeneic regenerative strategies are “histo-incompatible” and would be recognized by the host immune system (direct or indirect allo-recognition), they are documented today as more realistic and pragmatic strategies to overcome the limitation of the autologous sources. Lessons from ongoing research advocate that allogeneic strategies may lower the immunological response of the host cells by modulation or by regulatory mechanisms during the effector phase. Within this notion, the MHC/HLA emerges as a key player in basic, translational, and clinical aspects of regenerative medicine but also for logistics with reference to cell banks.

The various immunological inputs driving a regeneration program are yet to be resolved, but the basic requirements for a regeneration-permissive immune environment are beginning to emerge. Whether allogenicity is a key element to tissues pro-regenerative immune environment is an open question.

This Research Topic welcomes contributions addressing the immunology of regenerative strategies and therapies and the lessons learned from allogeneic versus autologous therapies, pre-clinical and clinical trials, and from the past and contemporary strategies towards immune-educated successful regenerative medicine.


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