About this Research Topic
Status Epilepticus (SE) is a neurological emergency and has high morbidity and mortality. The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) recently updated their definition to specify that, “SE is a condition resulting either from the failure of the mechanisms responsible for seizure termination or from the initiation of mechanisms, which lead to abnormally, prolonged seizures.” This can lead to long-term neurological complications due to neuronal death, glia, neurological injury, aberrant neuroplasticity, oxidative stress and inflammation, and alteration of neuronal networks. Depending upon the type and duration of SE, these mechanisms are quite variable. Therefore, in response to the updated definition of SE, novel avenues of research are required to address the specified involvement of the underlying mechanisms and pathophysiology resulting in the development of and outcomes from SE.
Improving the basic science understanding of SE will facilitate essential clinical trials. One can envision such trials to include device and compound-based technological interventions directed at aborting the seizure activity and improving clinical outcomes. Benzodiazepines remain one of the cornerstones of treatment, and studies are underway to study new delivery options, including intranasal, buccal and intramuscular midazolam, in addition to rectal diazepam, with the goal of aborting the seizure activity outside the hospitals, as rapidly as possible. Approved and off-label anticonvulsants, such as phenytoin, phenobarbital, valproate, topiramate, levetiracetam, lacosamide, steroids, immunosuppressants and neuroprotective compounds, have also shown some efficacy at treating SE. However, substantial challenges remain in optimally treating SE and minimizing the short- and long-term complications. Such challenges can be overcome by innovative approaches targeting the basic mechanisms of neuronal excitability, glia, neuronal death, neuroplasticity, oxidative stress, inflammation and neuroinflammation.
In this Research Topic, we aim to feature original and review articles that provide insight into the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, treatment, recent advances and future directions in the management of SE, with the goal of providing an in-depth view and advancing the field to improve management of SE.
Keywords: seizure, status epilepticus
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