About this Research Topic
The epidemic increase of diabetes mellitus and associated complications like obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk, go along with mounting evidence of clinically important sex and gender differences. Both biological and psycho-social factors impact on disease risk and progression. Diversities in biology, culture, lifestyle, environment, and socioeconomic status influence the phenotype of several diseases in men and women in different ways. Additionally, genetic effects, epigenetic mechanisms, and nutritional factors contribute to sex- and gender differences of endocrine, metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Furthermore, sex hormones have a great impact on energy metabolism, body composition, sexual and vascular function, and inflammatory responses. Sexual dysfunctions and reproductive problems of men and women with metabolic diseases, which are often underestimated in clinical practice, do not only increase the psychological strain of affected persons, these problems may be considered as markers for cardiovascular risk. A better understanding of the genetic, endocrine and psycho-social factors involved in sex and gender inequalities that affect non-communicable diseases contribute to a more personalized health care and points out sex- and gender-specific risk factors, enabling the development of sex- and gender-specific prevention strategies to cope with the major burden of chronic conditions.
Keywords: Sex, gender, diabetes, obesity, metabolic syndrome
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