Research Topic

The Immunology of Sepsis – Understanding Host Susceptibility, Pathogenesis of Disease, and Avenues for Future Treatment

About this Research Topic

Sepsis remains among the leading causes of mortality with over 30 million cases worldwide per year, resulting in over 6 million deaths and huge costs for society. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a deregulated host response to infection. Advances in supportive care and antimicrobial therapy have improved patient outcome. However mortality rates remain high due to several factors including (i) disease heterogeneity, (ii) host characteristics and (iii) shortcomings in early recognition and diagnosis. Therefore, there is an urgent global need to improve the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and management of sepsis. The key to improving these processes lies in acquiring in-depth knowledge of the intricate interplay between host defense, infection and pathogen virulence as well as timing and type of interventions that are most effective according to the personal characteristics of individual patients.

Increased susceptibility to sepsis has long been known for broad patient groups, including (i) neonates, (ii) infants, (iii) the elderly and (iv) immunosuppressed patients. Yet this observation fails to explain large inter-individual differences in sepsis outcomes. Recent studies have identified common and rare genetic variation that confers increased susceptibility to infection, and have led to the identification of novel primary immunodeficiencies. Links between host genetic variation and associated effect sizes on sepsis susceptibility and/or sepsis severity have also been recently uncovered. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying host susceptibility to infection and deregulated immune responses leading to sepsis remain poorly understood. Furthermore, biomarkers that could be used to identify and characterize these dysregulated host responses are currently lacking.

Therefore, more research, particularly using omics-based approaches, is essential to untangle the immunologic and genetic mechanisms underlying progression from infection to sepsis. Interestingly, sepsis outcome has been shown to be related to the balance between pro-inflammatory and counteracting anti-inflammatory mechanisms involved in sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. Indeed, the immune status of patients with sepsis progresses with time, and there is a critical need for accurate monitoring of associated immune dysregulation in order to (i) determine the potential benefit of immunomodulative interventions and (ii) stratify patients to be enrolled in clinical studies and for the implementation of personalized medicine.

In this Research Topic, we aim to address the key roles of the host immune system in sepsis susceptibility, presentation and outcomes. In this way, we aim to identify new avenues for healthcare intervention and to accelerate improved treatments for sepsis. Original Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Perspective, Protocols, Case Report articles are welcome for submission.


Keywords: Sepsis, Host susceptibility


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

Sepsis remains among the leading causes of mortality with over 30 million cases worldwide per year, resulting in over 6 million deaths and huge costs for society. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a deregulated host response to infection. Advances in supportive care and antimicrobial therapy have improved patient outcome. However mortality rates remain high due to several factors including (i) disease heterogeneity, (ii) host characteristics and (iii) shortcomings in early recognition and diagnosis. Therefore, there is an urgent global need to improve the prevention, recognition, diagnosis and management of sepsis. The key to improving these processes lies in acquiring in-depth knowledge of the intricate interplay between host defense, infection and pathogen virulence as well as timing and type of interventions that are most effective according to the personal characteristics of individual patients.

Increased susceptibility to sepsis has long been known for broad patient groups, including (i) neonates, (ii) infants, (iii) the elderly and (iv) immunosuppressed patients. Yet this observation fails to explain large inter-individual differences in sepsis outcomes. Recent studies have identified common and rare genetic variation that confers increased susceptibility to infection, and have led to the identification of novel primary immunodeficiencies. Links between host genetic variation and associated effect sizes on sepsis susceptibility and/or sepsis severity have also been recently uncovered. Nonetheless, the mechanisms underlying host susceptibility to infection and deregulated immune responses leading to sepsis remain poorly understood. Furthermore, biomarkers that could be used to identify and characterize these dysregulated host responses are currently lacking.

Therefore, more research, particularly using omics-based approaches, is essential to untangle the immunologic and genetic mechanisms underlying progression from infection to sepsis. Interestingly, sepsis outcome has been shown to be related to the balance between pro-inflammatory and counteracting anti-inflammatory mechanisms involved in sepsis-induced immunoparalysis. Indeed, the immune status of patients with sepsis progresses with time, and there is a critical need for accurate monitoring of associated immune dysregulation in order to (i) determine the potential benefit of immunomodulative interventions and (ii) stratify patients to be enrolled in clinical studies and for the implementation of personalized medicine.

In this Research Topic, we aim to address the key roles of the host immune system in sepsis susceptibility, presentation and outcomes. In this way, we aim to identify new avenues for healthcare intervention and to accelerate improved treatments for sepsis. Original Research, Reviews, Mini-Reviews, Perspective, Protocols, Case Report articles are welcome for submission.


Keywords: Sepsis, Host susceptibility


Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

About Frontiers Research Topics

With their unique mixes of varied contributions from Original Research to Review Articles, Research Topics unify the most influential researchers, the latest key findings and historical advances in a hot research area! Find out more on how to host your own Frontiers Research Topic or contribute to one as an author.

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

15 January 2018 Abstract
30 April 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..

Topic Editors

Loading..

Submission Deadlines

15 January 2018 Abstract
30 April 2018 Manuscript

Participating Journals

Manuscripts can be submitted to this Research Topic via the following journals:

Loading..
Loading..

total views article views article downloads topic views

}
 
Top countries
Top referring sites
Loading..

Comments

Loading..

Add a comment

Add comment
Back to top