About this Research Topic
Respiratory infections are leading causes of mortality and morbidity, with Tuberculosis and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) culminating in almost 5 million deaths per year. Respiratory tract infections pose a continuous threat to humans due to their easy dissemination via aerial transmission. Children under the age of five living in developing countries are the most susceptible hosts to a plethora of bacteria and viruses including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Influenza virus, Respiratory syncytial virus and metapneumovirus. Likewise, adult patients suffering from underlying chronic respiratory diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), bronchiectasis or neutrophilic asthma are also highly targeted by LRTIs.
Despite vaccination saving millions of lives, the growing emergence of antibiotic resistant strains is a major challenge for the coming years. In addition, some vaccines against particular respiratory pathogens are ineffective in providing long-term protection. Accordingly, an enhanced understanding of host immunity to respiratory infections is essential for developing new and more effective microbial- and host-directed therapeutics. This Research Topic will provide a comprehensive overview of the microbial factors and the host immune mechanisms that determine the control of lung infection and/or the development of lung diseases.
We welcome the submission of Original Research, Review, Mini-Review and Opinion articles that cover different aspects of immunology against respiratory pathogens, which include but are not limited to:
1. Host factors involved in pathogen recognition in the respiratory system including cytosolic DNA sensors.
2. Pathogen targets for immune recognition including membrane-anchored and secreted effector molecules.
3. New prophylactic and/or therapeutic strategies against respiratory infections.
4. The role of the lung microbiome and virome in health and disease.
5. Specific roles of immune cell subsets in response to respiratory infections spanning both innate and adaptive immunity.
Keywords: Respiratory infection, Lung infection, LRTI, COPD, Vaccine
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.