About this Research Topic
The rapid and widespread adoption of Next-Generation Sequencing technology has led to the identification of numerous short and long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the past decade, and inspired research into the fascinating world of RNA-mediated gene regulation. Once thought to only serve as a bridge between DNA and proteins, we now know that RNAs play important regulatory roles such as gene silencing mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), chromatin modifications assisted by long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and regulation of gene transcription by enhancer RNA. Moreover, additional RNA features such as alternative splicing and post-transcriptional chemical modifications of RNA help to create an enormous amount of complexity in the mammalian transcriptome, the significance of which still remains largely unexplored. This Research Topic in Frontiers in Oncology (Hematology Oncology Section) aims to introduce readers to various facets of RNA biology in the context of development, progression and therapy of hematological malignancies such as leukemias, lymphomas and myelomas.
Few of the earliest roles of ncRNAs were defined in the hematopoietic system where lncRNAs such as HOTAIRM1 and NEAT1 were shown to be essential for normal hematopoiesis. Recent large-scale microRNA expression profiling of multiple patient samples has also identified over 100 miRNAs that are differentially expressed in human leukemias. The diagnostic and therapeutic potential of these miRNAs is a subject of extensive research and would prove to be crucial in our goal to develop precision chemotherapy. All this is motivated by the fact, that even though multiple fusion proteins and functionally inactive mutant proteins have long been identified in various malignant hematologic disorders, only few therapeutic approaches have been able to successfully target these proteins.
Therefore, it is essential to identify additional vulnerabilities in these cancers, and ncRNAs, which make up 90% of the human genome, are attractive targets. Exciting new research has shown that additional aspects of RNA biology, such as chemical modifications of RNA or inhibition of mRNA decapping can be promising therapeutic targets in leukemias. This issue will serve to gather the extensive and rapidly expanding knowledge on the roles of RNA in hematological malignancies in the form of mini reviews, reviews, opinions and perspective articles, and also contain latest research in the form of clinical trial and original research articles. We welcome submissions focused on or related to the following aspects of RNA biology:
1. Diagnostic potential of non-coding RNAs in blood disorders
2. Gene regulatory roles of lncRNA and miRNA in leukemogenesis
3. RNA editing and its therapeutic potential in hematological malignancies
4. Targeting mRNA processing in leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma
5. Aberrant RNA splicing as a therapeutic vulnerability in AML
6. Consequences and roles of RNA modifications in leukemias
7. Role of RNA binding proteins in driving leukemic progression
Keywords: Leukemia, lncRNA, Epigenetics, Transcriptome, RNA modifications
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