About this Research Topic
Encephalitis is the inflammation of the brain parenchyma that leads to a combination of fever, headache, altered level of consciousness, seizures, focal neurological deficits, behavioral disturbances, and coma. Viruses are the most common infectious agents of encephalitis despite the poorly understanding of their pathogenesis. Viral encephalitis may be caused by a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses such as enteroviruses (EV 71, polio-, echo- and coxsackieviruses); paramyxoviruses (measles, rubella); orthomyxoviruses (influenza A virus); flaviviruses (West Nile, Japanese encephalitis, dengue and Zika viruses); retroviruses (human immunodeficiency virus); alphaviruses (Venezuelan equine-, eastern equine-, western equine-encephalitis, Chikungunya and Kunjin virus); bunyaviruses (La Crosse virus); rhabdoviruses (rabies virus); parvovirus (B19); astroviruses; herpesviruses (HSV-2, varicella-zoster, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr, and HHV 6 and 7); and adenovirus.
Virus-specific serology, serum and CSF PCR, and brain MRI can confirm the diagnosis of some forms of viral encephalitis. Although Herpes simplex virus is the most common cause of viral encephalitis worldwide, there are still about 60% of cases of presumed viral encephalitis remain unknown due to unable to detect the infectious agent by conventional laboratory techniques. Currently, there are only a few types of viral encephalitis that can be treated with antiviral agents. For most cases, there are no antivirals or vaccines to treat or prevent viral infections.
This Research Topic welcomes original research articles, opinions, perspectives, methods and reviews highlighting the current advances in viral encephalitis. A better understanding of viral encephalitis will enable the development of novel therapy and a better diagnosis for the disease. We are specifically interested in studies related to:
• Clinical features and pathogenesis
• Treatment options
• RNA virus-associated encephalitis
• DNA virus-associated encephalitis
Keywords: Viral Encephalitis, Antiviral, Vaccine, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnostics
Important Note: All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.