About this Research Topic
Dietary bioactive lipids, from a food science point of view, can be generically defined as lipids with specific roles on health. Their function can be related to the physical or chemical properties of these molecules. Numerous studies have found that lipids give health advantages primarily through two mechanisms: (1) changing the fatty acid composition of certain tissues; (2) promoting cell signaling pathways. Some health benefits can be attributed to short- to medium-chain fatty acids, although most of the evidence suggests that polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), carotenoids; phytosterols and phytostanols, fat-soluble vitamins, and other lipids, such as neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids (PL), ceramides (Cer), glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL), are the most important bioactive lipids. Microorganisms are a diverse group of microscopic organisms including archaea, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, and viruses, can produce a massive pool of unique chemicals, which have become a valuable source for innovative biotechnology. Microorganisms also contain a variety of lipids, such as oxylipins, sphingolipids, phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols. etc. Because of its nutraceutical and pharmacological relevance, bioactive lipid biosynthesis and molecular accumulation mechanisms in lipogenic model microorganisms have attracted the interest of many researchers.
Bioactive lipids have a wide range of structural entities, ranging from simple saturated fatty acids to complex compounds, and are the result of the actions of numerous phospholipases and phospholipid kinases, which are activated by a variety of signal-transducing receptors. During the extensive screening, oleaginous microorganisms with high desired metabolite production could address the need for novel natural producers that can provide a cheap and conveniently accessible supply of diverse lipids and related value-added active compounds. However, due to the difficulties in processing, there are a few of studies in oleaginous microorganisms about enhancing production of lipid, carotenoids, isoprenoids, phenolic lipids and other related molecules through metabolic engineering or molecular mechanisms that regulate gene expression.
This research topic aims to reflect the advances in the research on the role of bioactive lipids biosynthesis and their derivatives in microorganisms during their lipid accumulation pathways, as well as the potential applications of these lipids in the food industry, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical fields. We would like to encourage scientists and researchers to contribute their work as original articles and review submissions on the following topics:
1- Explore the molecular accumulation mechanism(s) of the bioactive rare lipids; identify carotenoids and active product receptors and investigate the signal transduction of these active substances.
2- The discovery of the important genes involved in the regulatory mechanisms during complicated lipid accumulation.
3- Recent advances in molecular genomics biotechnology during lipid biosynthesis, and the role of these bioactive lipids in the industrial applications
4- Extraction, purification, and identification of bioactive natural compounds, including lipids, from the organisms examined, and their use in food, nutrition, and medicine, such as food preservation materials and nutrition functional components.
5- Elucidate the potential of the bioactive lipids and secondary metabolites as antimicrobial, anticancer agents.
Keywords: Lipid accumulation; Oleaginous microorganisms; Metabolic engineering; Regulatory mechanism; Bioactivity, Identification
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