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Manuscript Submission Deadline 01 December 2022
Manuscript Extension Submission Deadline 31 December 2022

Respiratory diseases in livestock (horses, pigs, cattle, sheep and goats) are a health and welfare concerns, and an economic loss for animal industry worldwide. Morbidity and mortality vary enormously depending on the management, applied prophylaxis measures, and involved pathogens, with higher percentages ...

Respiratory diseases in livestock (horses, pigs, cattle, sheep and goats) are a health and welfare concerns, and an economic loss for animal industry worldwide. Morbidity and mortality vary enormously depending on the management, applied prophylaxis measures, and involved pathogens, with higher percentages when both viral and bacteria are simultaneously involved. However, predisposing factors play a decisive role in the development of the disease: husbandry practices, weaning, long-distance transport, stocking density, environmental factors and commingling with animals from other sources are considered major risk factors favoring the proliferation of saprophytic and pathogenic microorganisms resulting in respiratory syndromes and pneumonia.

The main pathogens associated with respiratory diseases and with an increased incidence of respiratory distress are herpesvirus, coronavirus, pestivirus, parainfluenzavirus, orthopneumovirus, adenovirus, Mycoplasma spp, Pasteurella spp. As known, viral infection interferes with the mucociliary clearance of the respiratory tract and dysregulates the tracheal antimicrobial peptides of the innate respiratory defenses of the host. However, recent studies speculate that the role of viral infections as the starting point for BRD on which secondary opportunistic bacteria enter was a simplistic view of the pathogenesis of the disease; meanwhile, the primary role of some pathogens rarely detected in the past and generally considered of minor importance, was identified to elicit the disease. The potential pathogenetic role for these minor pathogens and the high frequency with which co-infections occur make BRD a complex disease difficult to control. Mass administration of long-acting antibiotics and vaccine prophylaxis against major pathogens are highly effective in counteracting infections after feedlot placement through both reductions of pathogen colonization and weakening of disease evolution.

In particular, antimicrobial metaphylaxis commonly used upon feedlot arrival, reduces morbidity and mortality. However, this mass administration of antibiotics dramatically contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance (AMR) in humans and animals, one of the major global health threats, and new management strategies both to improve and to minimize the use of antibiotics and the spread of AMR/AMR genes are required.

To better clarify the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in respiratory disease development and to better understand the most important aspects related to their control while spearing the risk of AMR development, experimental prospective, retrospective studies, as well as critical reviews concerning the correct management of cattle, are welcome in this issue.

A multidisciplinary approach is required in line with the multifactorial aetiology of the syndrome. Scientific aspects related to the management of transport and breeding, as well as immunopathological and aetiological implications, epidemiologic and risk factors, AMR control, new technologies for the diagnosis, prophylaxis measures to counteract the infection will be the primary aims of this Research Topic.

Keywords: livestock, respiratory diseases, welfare, management, prophylaxis


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