About this Research Topic
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) remains a major threat for livestock industries, affecting cloven-hoof species worldwide. The devastating effects associated with the presence of FMD may be verified at different stages: from smallholders, directly affected by the reduced productivity, to whole-country economies impacted by the domestic control measures and the severe restrictions imposed on international trade. FMD’s etiological agent is a small non-enveloped positive sense single-stranded RNA virus (FMDV) belonging to the Picornaviridae family, genus Aphthovirus. The virus combines its high antigenic variability with efficient transmission, making it highly contagious among susceptible individuals even from different species. Although progress in FMDV control is ongoing and supported by international organizations, the disease is still endemic in many parts of the world.
Strategies for FMD control vary between regions depending on their epidemiological situation. To manage the risk, it is paramount that government, farmers, veterinarians and industry engage in significant prevention, planning and preparedness. There are several gaps and needs to be fulfilled, in order to have the knowledge and tools for an efficient control of this disease. Diagnostic tests still need to be assessed both in sensitivity and specificity and surveillance systems must be evaluated at global, regional, and national scales. Vaccine selection is one of the major unsolved issues. Cross-reactivity among strains is usually limited and thus, antigenic matching between the vaccine and field strains may pose serious challenges. Once the vaccine antigen is selected, immune responses still should be improved in terms of eliciting a rapid onset of the protective immunity and long duration. Simultaneously, novel vaccines are being developed, avoiding the need of growing live virus that requires dedicated biosafety facilities.
Scientists working on FMD around the world are networking though the Foot and Mouth Disease Research Alliance (GFRA). The GFRA holds meetings to analyse the research gaps as well as scientific meetings every two years, to share the last advances on researching and promote networking. This research topic focuses on studies (including e.g. original research, perspectives, mini reviews, commentaries and opinion papers) that investigate and discuss the different research gaps in FMD. Papers derived from abstracts presented at the GFRA 2019 meeting are welcome, we also encourage submissions of relevant studies on FMD. This collection includes novel studies on epidemiology, diagnostics, vaccine development and immunology of FMD. It is now our task to provide novel information covering all major aspects of foot and mouth disease.
• Field surveillance and herd immunity
• FMDV diagnostics
• Vaccine development
• Vaccine selection and cross-protection
• Immunology and immunopathogenesis
PLEASE NOTE: ABSTRACTS ARE NOT COMPULSORY AND THEY ARE NOT NECESSARY TO ALLOW THE SUBMISSION OF A FULL MANUSCRIPT. THEY SERVE THE PURPOSE OF ENABLING THE GUEST EDITORS TO DO A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE CONTENT THAT WILL BE SUBMITTED TO THEIR COLLECTION.
Keywords: FMD, FMDV diagnostics, field surveillance, vaccines, immunology, herd immunity, immunopathogenesis
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