About this Research Topic
This Topic has been realized in collaboration with Dr. Ana Civantos Postdoctoral Researcher Associate, Department of Nuclear, Plasma and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA. Dr. Civantos has contributed to defining the Research Topic and will act as an advisor in areas around in-vitro testing of materials.
The tissues of the muscle-skeletal system and joint cartilages suffer a degradation mostly associated with aging, which in some cases is a consequence of diseases related to physical activity or traumas. Hard and soft tissue implants fail due to different reasons: bone resorption associated with stress-shielding phenomena, a deficient osseointegration because of interfacial problems (absence of bioactivity and bacteria presence), inadequate design and tribo-mechanical behavior, which indicates the necessity of improving the biomechanical/biofunctional balance. In this context, the use of porous materials (homogeneous and gradient porosity) and surface treatments is widely recognized and up to 34 different techniques to produce porous metallic materials (also named foams or cell materials) have been reported. Optimum bulk properties of porous samples and better combinations of advanced surface modifications are required for a desired balance between a high mechanical strength, a low stiffness, a proper stimulation of bone cells for bone repair, and a high fatigue life.
The tissues of the muscle-skeletal system and joint cartilages suffer a degradation mostly associated with aging, which in some cases is a consequence of diseases related to physical activity or traumas. The implants fail due main three reasons:
1) Biomechanical incompatibility reflected in the elastic mismatch with respect to hosting tissue, and the consequent bone resorption around the implants.
2) We still need more knowledge about roles of biointerfaces and their interactions with other properties of the implant/tissue system; this is a determinant aspect to improve osteointegration.
3) Life prediction of implantable devices is still a challenging task to be addressed; permanent Ti implants need to be designed from a damage prevention philosophy, instead of damage tolerance one
To overcome the clinical limitations of current implants, synthesis, fabrication, biological evaluation and characterization of natural or synthetic tailored porous biomaterials (metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites) to substitute hard and soft tissues, should be studied in detail. The chemical and physical surface modification, as well as the relationship among the micro-structural, tribo-mechanical and biological (cells and bacteria) behavior, have to be implemented and evaluated.
This Research Topic welcomes themes around, but not limited to, the following areas:
• Porous biomaterial (metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites) to substitute hard and soft tissues
• Conventional and novel fabrication techniques of porous materials (homogeneous and gradual pores distribution)
• Modification of surface topography (roughness, texture)
• Biological evaluation of porous biomaterials
• Thermo-chemical treatment and coating deposition
• Chemical composition, phases, and micro-structural analyses of the substrate and coatings
• Corrosion and tribo-mechanical behavior
• Bone cells and bacterial strains evaluation
• Nutrient diffusion, biodegradability, and routes to stimulate specific cells
Keywords: Porous biomaterials, Surface modification, Biomechanical behavior, Osseointegration, Bacterial and biological response
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