About this Research Topic
Antimicrobial resistance is a consequence of inappropriate and exaggerated antimicrobial treatment in both humans and animals, and has recently been subject of wide-ranging community concern. A lack of clinical reasoning may result in undesired epidemiological pressure that selects populations of bacteria abounding in antimicrobial resistance genes. A set of resistance genes in the microbial community, defined as a resistome, continuously develops due to changes in the genetic and phenotypic structure of bacterial population induced by various environmental factors.
Intensive farming technologies for food animals broadly imply the use of antimicrobials to reduce the health and economic impacts of infectious diseases by diminishing morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, the spread of antimicrobial resistant bacteria from animal farming to the broader environment may threaten humans, livestock and wildlife.
Numerous investigations were conducted to clarify the mechanisms of multidrug resistance (MDR) and resistance gene transfer from bacteria in farmed animals and food products to human pathogens. The variable potential of antimicrobial resistance in soil bacteria was also described based on geo-chemical conditions. Tolerance to antimicrobials in bacteria from heavy metal polluted areas was highlighted, suggesting the selective importance of pollution in maintaining and spreading of MDR.
Reciprocal relationships that exist between resistant and potentially pathogenic bacteria and their habitat or broader environment need to be precisely defined to develop and implement preventive and control measures with highest benefits for humans, animals and the environment. A solid connection can be established between the amounts of antimicrobials used and the increase in numbers of resistant species, in spite of the presence of antimicrobial resistance in pristine sources before introduction of antimicrobials in medical and/or veterinary practice.
This Research Topic aims to update research results on antimicrobial resistance, its emergence and persistence, connections to environmental factors (such as geography, climate and climate change), influence of farming and sewage water management, wildlife, conservation and others, to produce a comprehensive view of the importance of often disregarded environmental niches in increasing virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Submissions of Perspectives, Opinions, Commentary, and Data Reports are also welcome.
Potential topics include, but are not limited to, the following:
• Environment pollution and antibiotic resistance;
• Climate change and antibiotic resistance;
• Horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance genes;
• Farming technologies and antibiotic resistance;
• Role of wildlife in persistence of antibiotic resistance;
• Rapid diagnosis of multi antibiotic resistance;
• Prevention and control of antibiotic resistance.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance, microbiome, environment, horizontal transfer, pollution
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