About this Research Topic
Semiconductor radiation detectors are well-established and widely used in applications across the field of nuclear science for decades. Today, novel fabrication technology continues to be an active research topic motivated by the new emerging requirements in fundamental science and the growing demands for competitive devices in industry within nuclear medicine, security and instrumentation. Silicon detectors have by far been the most widely used material in detector technology, driven by their unique properties and the technological maturity of the electronic industry. In recent years, scientists are working to push the limit of semiconductor detectors through research in the current state-of-the-art silicon technology and novel materials.
Recent revolutionary designs are Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD), Depleted Field Effect Transistors (DEPFET) and Low Gain Avalanche Diode (LGAD), all offering advantages that allow silicon detectors to be excellent candidates for timing applications. Single Photon Avalanche Diode (SPAD) provides single photon counting, credit to their high sensitivity. SPAD is also a basis for the recent development of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM), which is now a preferred choice in many applications.
Micro-Electro-Mechanical-System (MEMS) and commercial CMOS technology have also introduced breakthrough in silicon technology. 3D detector, a combination of conventional planar and MEMS technology offers a new detector with high radiation tolerance and zero dead areas. Meanwhile, Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor (MAPS) from CMOS technology is a cost-effective option that can become a mainstream for future particle tracking and radiation imaging.
Novel concepts and materials have also emerged to surpass the current state-of-the-art. High band gap materials such as Cadmium Zinc Telleride (CZT) are now at manufacture maturity that are excellent for high energy gamma and X-ray detection. Diamond and Silicon Carbide also promise to offer new advantages. On a more disruptive front, nanotechnology, an exotic field for carbon nanotubes, graphene and 2D materials will pave avenues for the next era of detector research. Developing detectors from new material and technology requires international expertise of multi-disciplinary collaboration, spanning from material science to nuclear physics. Semiconductor radiation detectors is therefore a large scientific area where related materials and technologies are rapidly evolving with ground-breaking research.
For this research topic, we aim at encompassing contributions but not limited to the following areas:
• Fabrication techniques
• 3D and Micromachining
• CMOS technology
• Avalanche based detector technology
• Non-silicon materials and technologies
• Nanotechnology and downscaling
Keywords: Semiconductor detectors, silicon detectors, CMOS technology, micromachining, nanotechnology
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