About this Research Topic
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat for both human and animal health since it significantly diminishes the available therapeutic options.
A significant amount of the antimicrobials used in veterinary and human medicine is excreted essentially unchanged. They reach the environment by direct excretion from pasture animals and sewage treatment plants discharges or through agricultural fertilization with manure and sludge-fertilization. Their release into the environment can lead to cumulative high long-term residual concentrations that can promote occurrence of AMR, exerting a selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in a variety of ecosystems, and modifying the microbiota of plants, wild animals and the environment they inhabit. ARGs are considered environmental pollutants, and their presence in the different ecosystems could favour their entrance into the food chain. Livestock and people acquire these resistances with the consequent sanitary repercussion that this supposes. AMR is a global problem, beyond geographic, politic and animal/human borders.
Antimicrobial residues and AMR determinants have been reported in soils, surface and groundwater, glaciers, air, crops and wildlife from urban, agricultural and natural environments. Whereas most of the surveillance studies regarding antimicrobial resistance in livestock are focused on “from farm to fork”, the occurrence, extend and potential impact of antimicrobial residues and AMR determinants in the environment and wildlife are still poorly understood.
This Research Topic aims to focus on the importance of wildlife and environments to understand their role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in a globalized world. Within this holistic approach, original research articles, reviews, mini-reviews, methods articles and hypothesis and theory articles are welcome to collect to get a more comprehensive and broad picture on the occurrence, maintenance and dissemination of antimicrobial residues and resistance genes especially concerning the epidemiological relationships between AMR and different environments: natural, agricultural, and urban landscapes and; the risk of exposure to livestock and humans via food products, water consumption and recreational activities.
We strongly invite contributions that highlight limitations in interpreting the available research findings and the development of methodologies and strategies that will lead to implement surveillance and control of AMR in the environment.
We would like to acknowledge Drs. Carlos Sacristán, Kinndle Blanco-Peña and Irene Sacristán who have contributed to the preparation of the proposal for this Research Topic and who will act as Research Topic Coordinators.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobial residues, environment, wildlife, food chain
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