About this Research Topic
This Research Topic focuses on bridging the gaps existing between our knowledge on bacterial zoonoses and the One Health approach, considering bacteria, animal husbandry and public health. Specifically, we address diagnosis, etiology, immunology, and pathogenicity as well as studying bacterial bioinformatics in developing therapeutics, prophylaxis and vaccine regarding four important zoonotic diseases: brucellosis, tuberculosis, paratuberculosis and chlamydia.
Brucellosis is a zoonosis caused by Brucella spp. The Gram-negative bacteria infect a diverse array of land and aquatic mammals. There are 10 species of Brucella: B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, B. ovis, B. neotomae, B. cetacea, B. pinnipedia, B. microti, and B. inopinata. Of them, B. melitensis and B. abortus infections are more clinically important. The infection rates of brucellosis have significantly increased in recent years, seriously hampering animal husbandry and threatening public health. This Research Topic mainly includes: 1) development of more efficient and effective diagnosis methods for ruminant brucellosis; 2) investigation of the brucellosis prevalence among ruminants in the world; 3) development of vaccine for preventing ruminant brucellosis; 4) formulating targeted control strategies to provide effective prevention and treatment of ruminant brucellosis.
Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease that is caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and characterized by caseous necrosis and calcification lesions in the infected tissues. This disease is severely harmful for the cattle industry. Available detection assays include delayed allergy test, PCR, acid-fast staining and ELISA, while novel diagnostic assays are still required since these existing methods have many shortcomings (i.e. they are time-consuming and not always accurate.) This Research Topic focuses on pathogenesis research, diagnosis and vaccine development, which will contribute to improving current diagnostic methods, understanding the pathogenesis, and developing vaccines.
Paratuberculosis, also known as paratuberculous enteritis (Johne’s disease) is caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis and results in ruminant chronic wasting infectious disease. This pathogen is mainly infectious for cattle, young cattle being the most susceptible. Sheep, pigs, horses, deer and camels are all vulnerable. Infections in humans have also been reported. The disease is currently widely epidemic and seriously harmful to the cattle industry. This Research Topic aims to illustrate pathogenesis research, to develop simple, quick and effective diagnostic methods and provide reliable evidence for future vaccine development.
Chlamydia causes zoonotic infectious diseases which may result in abortion, pneumonia, enteritis and other clinical symptoms. There are four species of genus chlamydia, namely Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia psittacosis, pneumonia chlamydia and ruminants chlamydia. Among them, pneumonia chlamydia has been separated only from human so far; Chlamydia trachomatis was assumed to infect human and rats only, but related swine infection was reported in recent years; Chlamydia psittacosis and ruminants chlamydia are the main pathogenic bacteria for animals but human are also sensitive. The disease is endemic and has become a serious public health issue. Epidemiological surveys of chlamydia can provide support for the treatment of chlamydia, based on the epidemic status investigation of different chlamydia in or between the main hosts, and can also provide clues for the discovery of novel Chlamydia species and the research of chlamydia cross-species transmission.
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