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Front. Neuroanat. | doi: 10.3389/fnana.2018.00113

Advances in Parkinson´s disease: 200 years later

  • 1Centro Integral en Neurociencias A.C. HM CINAC, Spain
  • 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red sobre Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas (CIBERNED), Spain
  • 3Neuroscience, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (CIMA), Spain
  • 4Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology Department, Universidad de Navarra, Spain
  • 5Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Navarra (IdiSNA), Spain
  • 6Neurodegenerative Diseases Research Group, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Spain
  • 7Laboratory of Parkinson Disease and other Neurodegenerative Movement Disorders, Department of Neurology, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Spain
  • 8Departamento de Anatomía, Histología y Neurociencia, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Spain

When James Parkinson described the classical symptoms of the disease that was to be named after him he could hardly foresee the evolution of our understanding over the next two hundred years. Nowadays, Parkinson´s disease is considered a complex multifactorial disease in which genetic factors, either causative or susceptibility variants, unknown environmental cues, and the potential interaction of both could ultimately trigger the pathology. Noteworthy advances have been made in different fields from the clinical phenotype to the decoding of some potential neuropathological features, among which are the fields of genetics, drug discovery or biomaterials for drug delivery, which, though recent in origin, have evolved swiftly to become the basis of research into the disease today. In this review, we highlight some of the key advances in the field over the past two centuries and discuss the current challenges focusing on exciting new research developments likely to come in the next few years. Also, the importance of pre-motor symptoms and early diagnosis in the search for more effective therapeutic options is discussed.

Keywords: Parkinson ' s disease, Genetics, Non motor symptoms, Technology, Drug delivery system (DDS)

Received: 19 Sep 2018; Accepted: 26 Nov 2018.

Edited by:

Javier DeFelipe, Cajal Institute (CSIC), Spain

Reviewed by:

Marco Aurelio M. Freire, University of the State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil
Yoland Smith, Emory University, United States  

Copyright: © 2018 Del Rey, Quiroga-Varela, Garbayo, Carballo-Carbajal, Fernández-Santiago, Monje, Trigo-Damas, Blanco-Prieto and Blesa. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Javier Blesa, Centro Integral en Neurociencias A.C. HM CINAC, Móstoles, 28938, Madrid, Spain,