Original Research ARTICLE
Challenge for Affective Brain-Computer Interfaces: Non-stationary Spatio-spectral EEG Oscillations of Emotional Responses
- 1National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan
Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCIs) have been attracting ever-growing interest and research resources. Whereas most previous neuroscience studies have focused on single-day/-session recording and sensor-level analysis, less effort has been invested in assessing the fundamental nature of non-stationary EEG oscillations underlying emotional responses across days and individuals. This work thus aimed to use a data-driven blind source separation method, i.e., independent component analysis (ICA), to derive emotion-relevant spatio-spectral EEG source oscillations and assess the extent of non-stationarity. To this end, this work conducted an eight-day music-listening experiment (i.e., roughly interspaced over two months) and recorded whole-scalp 30-ch EEG data from 10 subjects. Given the large size of the data (i.e., from 80 sessions), results indicated that EEG non-stationarity was clearly revealed in the numbers and locations of brain sources of interest as well as their spectral modulation to the emotional responses. Less than half of subjects (two to four) showed the same relatively day-stationary (source reproducibility > six days) spatio-spectral tendency towards one of the binary valence and arousal states. This work substantially advances the previous work by exploiting intra- and inter-individual EEG variability in an ecological multiday scenario. Such EEG non-stationarity may inevitably present a great challenge for the development of an accurate, robust, and generalized emotion-classification model.
Keywords: affective brain-computer interface, EEG, intra-individual difference, Inter-individual difference, Independent Component Analysis
Received: 30 Jul 2019;
Accepted: 27 Sep 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Shen and Lin. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Yuan-Pin Lin, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, 80424, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan, firstname.lastname@example.org