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Front. Physiol. | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00898

Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Polyps is characterised by increased mucosal and blood Th17 effector cytokine producing cells

  • 1Surgery, University of Adelaide, Australia

Background
Recent studies have implied a role for Th17 cells in CRS with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) patients. However, the capacity of these cells to produce Th17 cytokines is still unknown. Here we sought to quantify IL-17A, IL17-F, IL-21 and IL-22 cytokines produced by Th17 cells in mucosal tissue and peripheral blood of CRSwNP, CRS without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and control patients.
Methods
Samples were prospectively collected from CRS patients and non-CRS controls. We used flow cytometry to characterise the Th17 cells and their cytokines in sinonasal tissue and peripheral blood.
Results
A total of 36 patients were recruited to the study. CRSwNP patients had significantly more tissue IL-17A (9.53 +/- 2.71 vs 1.11 +/ -0.43 vs 0.77 +/- 0.07), IL-17F (4.96 +/- 1.48 vs 0.88 +/-0.31 vs 0.56 +/- 0.04), IL-21 (5.55 +/- 2.01 vs 1.60 +/- 0.71 vs 1.53 +/- 0.55) and IL-22 (4.73 +/- 1.58 vs 0.70+/-0.28 vs 0.88 +/- 0.26) producing Th17 cells compared to CRSsNP and control mucosa per mg of tissue respectively. Allergic CRSwNP patients had decreased numbers of IL-21 producing Th17 cells compared to non-Allergic CRSwNP. (1.69 +/- 0.57 vs 9.41+/-3.23) per mg of tissue respectively (Kruskal-Wallis p<0.05).
Conclusion
In summary our study identified increased amounts of Th17 derived cytokines IL-17A, IL-17F, IL21 and IL22 in CRSwNP patient polyps and peripheral blood suggesting a local and systemic role for Th17 cells in CRS. Atopic CRSwNP had decreased amounts of tissue Th17 cell derived IL-21 implying a potential protective role for IL-21 in CRSwNP allergic inflammation.

Keywords: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), Nasal Polyps, flow cytometry (FCM), Th17 Cells, Th17 cytokines

Received: 06 Jul 2017; Accepted: 24 Oct 2017.

Edited by:

Gaetano Santulli, Columbia University, United States

Reviewed by:

Ayman A. Mohamed, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, United States
Shintaro Baba, Tokyo Metropolitan Children's Medical Center, Japan  

Copyright: © 2017 Miljkovic, Psaltis, Wormald and Vreugde. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Ms. Dijana Miljkovic, University of Adelaide, Surgery, Adelaide, Australia, dijana.miljkovic@adelaide.edu.au