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Mini Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Genet. | doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01082

What is karyotype coding and why is genomic topology important for cancer and evolution?

Christine J. Ye1*, Lukas Stilgenbauer2,  Amanda Moy2, Guo Liu2 and  Henry H. Heng2*
  • 1The Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Drive,, United States
  • 2Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, United States

While the importance of chromosomal/nuclear variations vs gene mutations in diseases is becoming more appreciated, less is known about its genomic basis. Traditionally, chromosomes are considered the carriers of genes, and genes define bio-inheritance. In recent years, the gene-centric concept has been challenged by the surprising data of various sequencing projects. The genome system theory has been introduced to offer an alternative framework. One of the key concepts of the genome system theory is karyotype chromosomal coding: chromosome sets function as gene organizers and the genomic topologies provide a context for regulating gene expression and function. In other words, the interaction of individual genes, defined by genomic topology, is part of the full informational system. The genes define the “Parts Inheritance,” while the karyotype and genomic topology (the physical relationship of genes within a three-dimensional nucleus) plus the gene content defines “System Inheritance.” In this mini-review, the concept of chromosomal coding will be briefly discussed, including: 1) the rationale for searching for new genomic inheritance, 2) chromosomal or karyotype coding (hypothesis, model, and its predictions), and 3) the significance and evidence of chromosomal coding (maintaining and changing the system inheritance-defined bio-systems). This mini-review aims to provide a new conceptual framework for appreciating the genome organization-based information package and its ultimate importance for future genomic and evolutionary studies.

Keywords: Chromosomal coding, Fuzzy inheritance, Genome theory, , System inheritance, non-clonal chromosome aberrations (NCCAs), , Genome chaos, Missing Heritability Problem, Genomic topology, chromosomal instability (CIN)

Received: 26 Jul 2019; Accepted: 09 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Ye, Stilgenbauer, Moy, Liu and Heng. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Mx. Christine J. Ye, The Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, 1500 East Medical Drive,, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, United States, jchrisy@med.umich.edu
Prof. Henry H. Heng, Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, School of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, 48201, Michigan, United States, hheng@med.wayne.edu