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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Genet. | doi: 10.3389/fgene.2019.01198

Genetic Diversity and Classification of the Cytoplasm of Chinese Elite Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.) Parental Lines Revealed by Chloroplast DNA Variation

Dan Liu1, Yanjiao Cui2, Jihong He3, Suying Li2*, Qiang Li2, Dan Liang1, Jianhe Wang1, Xiaowei Shi1, Conglei Wang1, Kongjun Dong3, Tianpeng Liu3, Lei Zhang3, Ruiyu Ren3, Tianyu Yang3*, Gang Feng1* and  Zhengli Liu2*
  • 1Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, China
  • 2Tangshan Normal University, China
  • 3Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China

Due to the maternal inheritance of cytoplasm, using foxtail millet [Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv.] male sterile lines with a single cytoplasmic source as the female parent will inevitably lead to a narrow source of cytoplasm in hybrids, which may make them vulnerable to infection by cytoplasm-specific pathogens, ultimately leading to destructive yield losses. To assess cytoplasmic genetic diversity in plants, molecular markers derived from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) have been used. However, such markers have not yet been applied to foxtail millet. In this study, we designed and screened nine pairs of polymorphic foxtail millet-specific primers based on its completely sequenced cpDNA. Using these primers, we analyzed the genetic diversity and cytoplasmic types of 130 elite foxtail millet parental lines collected in China. Our results revealed that the cytoplasmic genetic diversity of these accessions was low and needs to be increased. The parental lines were divided into four cytoplasmic types according to population structure analysis and a female parent-derivative evolutionary graph, indicating that the cytoplasmic types of elite foxtail millet lines were rather limited. A principal component analysis (PCA) plot was linked with the geographic and ecological distribution of accessions for each cytoplasmic type, as well as their basal maternal parents. Collectively, our results suggest that enriching cytoplasmic sources through the use of accessions from diverse ecological regions and other countries as the female parent may improve foxtail millet breeding programs, and prevent infection by cytoplasm-specific pathogens.

Keywords: foxtail millet, elite parent material, genetic diversity, Cytoplasmic type, chloroplast DNA

Received: 12 Aug 2019; Accepted: 29 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Liu, Cui, He, Li, Li, Liang, Wang, Shi, Wang, Dong, Liu, Zhang, Ren, Yang, Feng and Liu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence:
Mrs. Suying Li, Tangshan Normal University, Tangshan, Hebei Province, China,
Prof. Tianyu Yang, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Lanzhou, 730070, Gansu Province, China,
Mr. Gang Feng, Tianjin Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Tianjin, China,
Prof. Zhengli Liu, Tangshan Normal University, Tangshan, Hebei Province, China,