IGF-1, Inflammation and Retinal Degeneration: a close network
- 1Research Unit-University Hospital "Puerta del Mar", Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Ciencias Biomédicas de la Provincia de Cádiz (INiBICA), Universidad de Cadiz, Spain
- 2cellular signaling, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomédicas Alberto Sols (IIBM), Spain
- 3Centro de Investigación Biomedica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas - CIBERDEM, Spain
Retinal degenerative diseases are a group of heterogeneous diseases that include age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and diabetic retinopathy (DR). The progressive degeneration of the retinal neurons results in a severe deterioration of the visual function. Neuroinflammation is an early hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders of the retina including AMD, RP and DR. Microglial cells, key components of the retinal immune defence system, are activated in retinal degenerative diseases. In the microglia the interplay between the proinflammatory/classically activated or antiinflammatory/alternatively activated phenotypes is a complex dynamic process that occurs during the course of disease due to the different environmental signals related to pathophysiological conditions. In this regard, an adequate transition from the proinflammatory to the anti-inflammatory response is necessary to counteract retinal neurodegeneration and its subsequent damage that leads to the loss of visual function. Insulin like-growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been considered as a pleiotropic factor in the retina under health or disease conditions and several effects of IGF-1 in retinal immune modulation have been described. In this review, we provide recent insights of inflammation as a common feature of retinal diseases (AMD, RP and RD) highlighting the role of microglia, exosomes and IGF-1 in this process.
Keywords: Retina, Inflammation, neurodegeneration, Exosomes, IGF-1, Microglia
Received: 17 Apr 2018;
Accepted: 14 Jun 2018.
Edited by:Luis M. Garcia-Segura, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), Spain
Reviewed by:Jose L. Labandeira-Garcia, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain
Thomas Langmann, Lehrstuhl für Experimentelle Immunologie des Auges, Medizinische Fakultät, Universität zu Köln, Germany
Copyright: © 2018 Arroba, Campos-Caro, Aguilar-Diosdado and Valverde. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Ana I. Arroba, Instituto de Investigación e Innovación en Ciencias Biomédicas de la Provincia de Cádiz (INiBICA), Universidad de Cadiz, Research Unit-University Hospital "Puerta del Mar", Ana de Viya 21, Cádiz, 11570, Andalucía, Spain, firstname.lastname@example.org