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Systematic Review ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Aging Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2019.00291


 Fady Alnajjar1, 2*,  Sumayya Khalid2, Alstair Vogan2,  shingo shimoda1,  Rui Nouchi3 and Ryuta Kawashima3
  • 1Intelligent Behavior Control Unit, RIKEN, Japan
  • 2College of Information Technology, United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates
  • 3Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Japan

Background: Cognitive training helps to promote healthy aging and ease activities of daily living for older adults. Recently, experiments have been conducted using robots to perform this cognitive training.
Methods: A review was conducted to examine the effects of computer-based cognitive interventions for older adults who were either healthy or experiencing mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A second study also examined the evolution of socially assistive robots (SAR) and their effectiveness at administering cognitive training for older adults.
Results: 81 studies published between 2009 and 2019 were identified for review, 56 of which focused on computerized cognitive training (CCT) while 25 examined the use of robotics. 24 of the 56 CCT studies met the inclusion criteria. These were further classified into two groups: studies which used self-designed programs, and studies using commercially available ones. Of the 25 studies examining the use of robotics in cognitive intervention 7 met the inclusion criteria. Review shows that CCT improves cognitive function but that robots are more effective tools for improving cognition.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that CCT is beneficial for older adults and though there are drawbacks to this approach they are overcome by the introduction of robots into the training process. Culture, language and socio-economic considerations vis-a-vis robot design and training methodology should be included in future research.

Keywords: cognitive impairment, cognitive training, Computerized cognitive training (CCT), socially assistive robots, Elderly cognitive function

Received: 09 Jul 2019; Accepted: 09 Oct 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Alnajjar, Khalid, Vogan, shimoda, Nouchi and Kawashima. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Prof. Fady Alnajjar, Intelligent Behavior Control Unit, RIKEN, Nagoya, 463-0003, Aichi, Japan,