Original Research ARTICLE
A Ternary Hybrid EEG-NIRS Brain-Computer Interface for the Classification of Brain Activation Patterns during Mental Arithmetic, Motor Imagery, and Idle State
- 1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, South Korea
The performance of a brain-computer interface (BCI) can be enhanced by simultaneously using two or more modalities to record brain activity, which is generally referred to as a hybrid BCI. To date, many BCI researchers have tried to implement a hybrid BCI system by combining electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to improve the overall accuracy of binary classification. However, since hybrid EEG-NIRS BCI, which will be denoted by hBCI in this paper, has not been applied to ternary classification problems, paradigms and classification strategies appropriate for ternary classification using hBCI are not well investigated. Here we propose the use of an hBCI for the classification of three brain activation patterns elicited by mental arithmetic, motor imagery, and idle state, with the aim to elevate the information transfer rate (ITR) of hBCI by increasing the number of classes while minimizing the loss of accuracy. EEG electrodes were placed over the prefrontal cortex and the motor cortex, and NIRS optodes were placed only on the forehead. The ternary classification problem was decomposed into three binary classification problems using the “one-versus-one” classification strategy to apply the multi-band common spatial patterns filter to EEG data. A 10 × 10-fold cross validation was performed using shrinkage linear discriminant analysis to evaluate the average classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI when the meta-classification method was adopted to enhance classification accuracy. The ternary classification accuracies for EEG-BCI, NIRS-BCI, and hBCI were 76.1 ± 12.8, 64.1 ± 9.7, and 82.2 ± 10.2%, respectively. The classification accuracy of the proposed hBCI was thus significantly higher than those of the other BCIs (p < 0.005). The average ITR for the proposed hBCI was calculated to be 4.70 ± 1.92 bits/minute, which was 34.3% higher than that reported for a previous binary hBCI study.
Keywords: Brain-computer interface, Electroencephalography (EEG), Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS), Mental Imagery, hybrid BCI, pattern recognition
Received: 28 Jul 2017;
Accepted: 26 Jan 2018.
Edited by:Sung C. Jun, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea
Reviewed by:Dan Zhang, Tsinghua University, China
Yingchun Zhang, University of Houston, United States
Copyright: © 2018 Shin, Kwon and Im. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Chang-Hwan Im, Hanyang University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul, 04763, South Korea, email@example.com