The cortico-basal ganglia-cerebellar network: past, present and future perspectives
- 1University of Messina, Italy
- 2Centro Neurolesi Bonino Pulejo (IRCCS), Italy
- 3I.S.A.S.I. E. Caianello, National Research Council, Italy
Much of our present understanding of the function and operation of the basal ganglia rests on models of anatomical connectivity derived from tract tracing approaches in rodents and primates. However, the last years have been characterized by promising step forwards in the in vivo investigation and comprehension of brain connectivity in humans. The aim of this review is to revise the current knowledge on basal ganglia circuits, highlighting similarities and differences across species, in order to widen the current perspective on the intricate model of the basal ganglia system. This will allow us to explore the implications of additional direct pathways running from cortex to basal ganglia and between basal ganglia and cerebellum recently described in animals and humans.
Keywords: Cerebellum, connectomics, Globus pallidum, Substantia Nigra, tractography
Received: 23 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 08 Oct 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Milardi, Quartarone, Bramanti, Anastasi, Bertino, Basile, Buonasera, Pilone, Celeste, Rizzo, Bruschetta and Cacciola. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Prof. Angelo Quartarone, University of Messina, Messina, 98122, Sicilia, Italy, email@example.com
Dr. Alberto Cacciola, University of Messina, Messina, 98122, Sicilia, Italy, firstname.lastname@example.org