Field Chief Editor
Frontiers in Virology
The most abundant replicating species in nature is the virus that parasitically exists in all living organisms. Viruses are thus globally widespread and extremely diversified. They ingeniously replicate, persist, survive, and may cause diseases in their hosts. While some of them are tropic for certain host species, others are transmittable among various species by overcoming the species barriers. Importantly, viruses act as a specific genetic population and affect individual hosts to various degrees.
Frontiers in Virology explores all biological and molecular aspects of these viruses and reports cutting-edge studies that can direct future research. Virology is a multidisciplinary research field with respect to the technologies/methodologies in use, as well as the study targets and their focuses. The recent establishment and development of novel analytical systems for studies in virology are outstanding and noteworthy. Applications of these systems to virology would certainly generate new critical discoveries, which otherwise are not expected. Frontiers in Virology regards novelty, originality, and universality as the most important criteria for evaluating articles. We accept high-quality submissions that target and analyze viruses, by various investigation systems, of all categories/classifications. Sophisticated manuscripts on subviral entities such as prions, viroids, and endogenous sequences are also encouraged to be submitted. We provide solid and effective Open Access platforms to stimulate research activity in Virology and its relevant research areas and to promote scientific interactions within/between academic and public communities.
Key scientific issues in this journal include, but are not limited to: virus replication strategies; structural and functional biology of viral proteins/genomes; virus-cell interactions; virus intracellular movement and transit between cells; viral pathogenesis; innate and acquired immunity against viruses; pathophysiology of viral diseases; viral diversification in host/host populations; emerging and reemerging viruses; antivirals and vaccines; virus utilization for practical purposes.
To be an innovative and comprehensive virology journal, Frontiers in Virology has unique and distinct specialty sections (10 specialties), listed below:
Antivirals and Vaccines: study and development of effective anti-viral drugs and vaccines.
Bioinformatic and Predictive Virology: informatics, in silico studies, theoretical virology, predictive virology.
Emerging and Reemerging Viruses: all issues (basic and applied) related to emerging and re-emerging viruses.
Fundamental Virology: all basic issues related to various viruses, biology, and molecular biology, structural and functional biology, genetics, chemistry, classification.
Modeling of Viral Replication and Pathogenesis: animal models, organoids, any model systems for virus research.
Translational Virology: applied medical sciences based on significant results/findings of basic virology.
Virus and Host Immunity: host immunity against viruses, recognition of viruses by hosts, the interaction between host and virus, viral pathogenesis.
Viral Disease Investigation: all issues related to various viral diseases, medical studies, pre-clinical and clinical studies, pathophysiology of viral diseases, persistent infection.
Viral Diversification and Evolution: viral mutation, adaptation, evolution, virus diversity, population genetics.
Systems Virology: innovative research systems, novel technologies/ methodologies, and their applications.
Note: Quantitative analyses, including quantitative omics studies, should be performed on a minimum number of 3 biological replicates. Descriptive studies, such as comparative transcriptomic or phylogenetic analyses, will not be considered for review, unless they are extended to provide novel and meaningful insights into gene/protein function and/or the biology of the virus.
Frontiers in Virology is member of the Committee on Publication Ethics.
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Frontiers in Virology is composed of the following Specialty Sections:
The specialty sections of Frontiers in Virology welcome submission of the following article types: Brief Research Report, Case Report, Classification, Clinical Trial, Correction, Editorial, General Commentary, Hypothesis & Theory, Methods, Mini Review, Opinion, Original Research, Perspective, Review, Systematic Review, Technology and Code.
When submitting a manuscript to Frontiers in Virology, authors must submit the material directly to one of the specialty sections. Manuscripts are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the respective specialty section.
Frontiers' philosophy is that all research is for the benefit of humankind. Research is the product of an investment by society and therefore its fruits should be returned to all people without borders or discrimination, serving society universally and in a transparent fashion.
That is why Frontiers provides online free and open access to all of its research publications. For more information on open access click here.
Frontiers is fully compliant with open access mandates, by publishing its articles under the Creative Commons Attribution licence (CC-BY). Funder mandates such as those by the Wellcome Trust (UK), National Institutes of Health (USA) and the Australian Research Council (Australia) are fully compatible with publishing in Frontiers. Authors retain copyright of their work and can deposit their publication in any repository. The work can be freely shared and adapted provided that appropriate credit is given and any changes specified.
Under the Frontiers Conditions for Website Use and the Frontiers General Conditions for Authors, authors of articles published in Frontiers journals retain copyright on their articles, except for any third-party images and other materials added by Frontiers, which are subject to copyright of their respective owners. Authors are therefore free to disseminate and re-publish their articles, subject to any requirements of third-party copyright owners and subject to the original publication being fully cited. Visitors may also download and forward articles subject to the citation requirements and subject to any fees Frontiers may charge for downloading licenses. The ability to copy, download, forward or otherwise distribute any materials is always subject to any copyright notices displayed. Copyright notices must be displayed prominently and may not be obliterated, deleted or hidden, totally or partially.
Each Frontiers article strives for the highest quality, thanks to genuinely collaborative interactions between authors, editors and reviewers, who include many of the world's best scientists and scholars. Frontiers is well aware of the potential impact of published research both on future research and on society and, hence, does not support superficial review, light review or no-review publishing models. Research must be certified by peers before entering a stream of knowledge that may eventually reach the public - and shape society. Therefore, Frontiers only applies the most rigorous and unbiased reviews, established in the high standards of the Frontiers Review System. Furthermore, only the top certified research, evaluated objectively through quantitative online article level metrics, is disseminated to increasingly wider communities as it gradually climbs the tiers of the Frontiers Tiering System from specialized expert readership towards public understanding.
Frontiers has a number of procedures in place to support and ensure the quality of the research articles that are published:
Only leading experts and established members of the research community are appointed to the Frontiers Editorial Boards. Chief Editors, Associate Editors and Review Editors are all listed with their names and affiliations on the Journal pages and are encouraged to publicly list their publication credentials.
Associate Editors oversee the peer-review and take the final acceptance decision on manuscripts. Editorial decision power is distributed in Frontiers, because we believe that many experts within a community should be able to shape the direction of science for the benefit of society.
Submitting authors can choose a preferred Associate Editor to handle their manuscript, because they can judge well who would be an appropriate expert in editing their manuscript. There is no guarantee for this preference of choice, Associate Editors can decline invitations any time, and the handling Associate Editor can also be over-ridden by the Chief Editor before she/he is invited to edit the article or at any other stage.
Associate Editors are mandated to only accept to edit a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Should it become clear that the Associate Editor has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, a new Associate Editor can be assigned to the manuscript by the Chief Editor, who has full control to intervene in the peer-review process at any time.
The Associate Editor initially checks that the article meets basic quality standards and has no obvious objective errors.
The Associate Editor can then personally choose and invite the most appropriate reviewers to handle the peer-review of the manuscript, including Review Editors from the board or external reviewers.
The Associate Editor is aided in this by the Frontiers Collaborative Review Forum software and interface, which suggests the most relevant Review Editors based on a match between their expertise and the topic of the manuscript. Associate Editors can however choose any reviewer they deem adequate.
After a certain time frame and if no reviewers have in the meantime been assigned to the manuscript, the Frontiers platform and algorithmic safety-net steps in and invites the most appropriate Review Editors based on constantly updated and improved algorithms that match reviewer expertise with the submitted manuscript.
Review Editors and reviewers are mandated to only accept to review a manuscript if they have no conflicts of interest (as stated here and in their review invitation and assignment emails).
Frontiers algorithms are constantly fine-tuned to better match Review Editors with manuscripts, and additional checks are being coded into the platform, for example regarding conflicts of interest.
Should it become clear that a particular reviewer has a conflict of interest or is unable to perform the peer-review timely and adequately, he or she shall be replaced with an alternative reviewer by the Associate Editor or the Chief Editor, who will be alerted and has full control to intervene into the peer-review at any time.
In the Independent Review Stage the assigned reviewers perform an in-depth review of the article independently of each other to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
The reviewers are aided by an online standardized review questionnaire – adopted to article types – with the goal to facilitate rigorous evaluation according to objective criteria and the Frontiers Review Guidelines.
The Associate Editor assesses the reviews and activates the “Interactive Review” – informing the authors of the extent of revisions that are required to address the reviewers’ comments, and starting the Interactive Discussion Forum where authors and also the reviewers get full access to all review reports.
Manuscript and review quality at this stage are enhanced by allowing authors and reviewers to discuss directly with each other in real-time until they reach consensus and a final version of the manuscript is endorsed by the reviewers.
Reviewer identity is protected at this stage to safeguard complete freedom of opinion.
Reviewers can recommend rejection at this stage if their requests to correct objective errors are not being met by the authors or if they deem the article overall of insufficient quality.
Should a dispute arise, authors or reviewers can trigger an arbitration and will alert the Associate Editor, who can assign more reviewers and/or bring the dispute to the attention of the Chief Editor. The Associate Editor can also weigh in on the discussion and is asked to mediate the process to ensure a constructive revision stage.
The decision to accept an article needs to be unanimous amongst all reviewers and the handling Associate Editor.
The names of the Associate Editor and reviewers are disclosed on published articles to encourage in depth and rigorous reviews, acknowledge work well done on the article and to bring transparency and accountability into peer-review.
Associate Editors can recommend the rejection of an article to the Chief Editor, who needs to check that the authors’ rights have been upheld during the peer-review process, and who can then ultimately reject the article if it is of insufficient quality, has objective errors or if the authors were unreasonably unwilling to address the points raised during the review.
Chief Editors can at any stage of the peer-review step in to comment on the review process, change assigned editors, assign themselves as a reviewer and even as the handling editor for the manuscript, and therefore have full authority and all the mechanisms to act independently in their online editorial office to ensure quality.
Only leading researchers acting as Associate Editors, who are not part of Frontiers staff, can make acceptance decisions based on reviews performed by external experts acting as Review Editors or reviewers. None have a financial incentive to accept articles, i.e. they are not paid for their role to act as Associate or Review Editors, and any award scheme is not linked to acceptances of manuscripts.
Chief Editors receive an honorarium if their specialty section or field reaches certain submission levels. However, this honorarium is based on the total number of submitted articles during a calendar year, and not the number of accepted articles. Therefore they also have no financial incentive to accept manuscripts.
The Frontiers platform enables post-publication commenting and discussions on papers and hence the possibility to critically evaluate articles even after the peer-review process.
Frontiers has a community retraction protocol in place to retract papers where serious concerns have been raised and validated by the community that warrant retraction, including ethical concerns, honest errors or scientific misconduct.