Mini Review ARTICLE
The state of knowledge of harmful algal blooms of Margalefidinium (Cochlodinium) polykrikoides in Latin America
- 1Center for Biological Research of the Northeast (CIBNOR), Mexico
- 2Investigación para la Conservación y el Desarrollo (INCODE), Mexico
- 3Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, College of Sciences and Engineering, University of Tasmania, Australia
- 4Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas (IPN), Mexico
The marine dinoflagellate Margalefidinium polykrikoides (=Cochlodinium polykrikoides) is a harmful species that has affected aquaculture, fisheries and tourism activities. It produces reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as hemolytic and neurotoxic-like substances, that have been associated with the mortality of marine organisms. It has a tropical and subtropical distribution, and has the capacity to form cysts. The economic impacts for aquaculture industries are high, and has affected mainly Asian countries. In Latin America no economical estimates of the impacts that this dinoflagellate has caused, have been performed. HABs formed by M. polykrikoides are more frequent in Mexico and Central America, impacting aquaculture and fisheries activities. Proliferations of this dinoflagellate in this region are related with winds, upwelling, convergence areas, local convection of seawater, and eutrophication of coastal areas by runoff from rainwater and dragging of coastal waters containing nitrogen and phosphorus compounds; as well as with the increase of agricultural and aquaculture activities. Laboratory studies have provided detailed information regarding the growth of strains from this region, as well as their harmful effects on fish and shrimp, and the role that the production of ROS and polyunsaturated fatty acids have in toxicity. It is also possible that M. polykrikoides has an ecological role in the regulation of blooms of other harmful algae. In this contribution, we review the history of harmful algal blooms (HABs) of M. polykrikoides in Latin America, and the research that has been conducted with this species.
Keywords: dinoflagellates, Margalefidinium, polykrikoides, HAB, Latin America
Received: 05 Jul 2018;
Accepted: 10 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Angel Borja, Centro tecnológico experto en innovación marina y alimentaria (AZTI), Spain
Reviewed by:Kyoko Yarimizu, National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Japan Fisheries Research and Education Agency, Japan
Maximo J. Frangopulos, University of Magallanes, Chile
Copyright: © 2019 Cortes, Nuñez Vazquez, Dorantes-Aranda, Band-Schmidt, SANDOVAL, Bustillos-Guzman and Leyva Valencia. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. David L. Cortes, Center for Biological Research of the Northeast (CIBNOR), La Paz, Mexico, firstname.lastname@example.org