The Function of Membrane Integral Pyrophosphatases from Whole Organism to Single Molecule
- 1Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
- 2School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
- 3Leeds Institute of Cardiovascular and Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Membrane integral pyrophosphatases (mPPases) are responsible for the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate. This enzymatic mechanism is coupled to the pumping of H+ or Na+ across membranes in a process that can be K+ dependent or independent. Understanding the movements and dynamics throughout the mPPase catalytic cycle is important, as this knowledge is essential for improving or impeding protein function. mPPases have been shown to play a crucial role in plant maturation and abiotic stress tolerance, and so have the potential to be engineered to improve plant survival, with implications for global food security. mPPases are also selectively toxic drug targets, which could be pharmacologically modulated to reduce the virulence of common human pathogens. The last few years have seen the publication of many new insights into the function and structure of mPPases. In particular, there is a new body of evidence that the catalytic cycle is more complex than originally proposed. There are structural and functional data supporting a mechanism involving half-of-the-sites reactivity, inter-subunit communication and exit channel motions. A more advanced and in-depth understanding of mPPases has begun to be uncovered, leaving the field of research with multiple interesting avenues for further exploration and investigation.
Keywords: membrane integral pyrophosphatase, human pathogens, Plants, Structural Biology, molecular mechanism, Membrane Proteins, Hydrolysis, Ion pumping
Received: 28 Aug 2019;
Accepted: 08 Nov 2019.
Copyright: © 2019 Holmes, Kalli and Goldman. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Adrian Goldman, Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, School of Chemistry, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, United Kingdom, firstname.lastname@example.org