Impact Factor 2.870 | CiteScore 2.96
More on impact ›

Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Hum. Neurosci. | doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00329

Progressive training for motor imagery brain-computer interfaces using gamification and virtual reality embodiment

 Filip Škola1*, Simona Tinková1 and  Fotis Liarokapis1
  • 1Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Czechia

This paper presents a gamified motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) training in immersive virtual reality. Aim of the proposed training method is to increase engagement, attention, and motivation in co-adaptive event-driven MI-BCI training. This was achieved using gamification, progressive increase of the training pace, and virtual reality design reinforcing the body ownership transfer (embodiment) into the avatar.

From the 20 healthy participants performing 6 runs of 2-class MI-BCI training (left/right hand), 19 were trained for a basic level of MI-BCI operation, with average peak accuracy in the session equal to 75.84\%. This confirms the proposed training method succeeded in improvement of the MI-BCI skills; moreover, participants were leaving the session in high positive affect. Although the performance was not directly correlated to the degree of embodiment, subjective magnitude of the body ownership transfer illusion correlated with the abilities to modulate the sensorimotor rhythm.

Keywords: brain-computer interface, Motor Imagery, embodiment, Body ownership transfer, Gamification

Received: 15 Mar 2019; Accepted: 06 Sep 2019.

Copyright: © 2019 Škola, Tinková and Liarokapis. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mr. Filip Škola, Faculty of Informatics, Masaryk University, Brno, Czechia,