Original Research ARTICLE
Based on the Metabolomic Approach the Energy Metabolism Responses of Oriental River Prawn Macrobrachium nipponense Hepatopancreas to Acute Hypoxia and Reoxygenation
- 1Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, China
- 2Guangxi Academy of Fishery Sciences, China
- 3Agriculture Ministry Key Laboratory of Healthy Freshwater Aquaculture, Zhejiang Institute of Freshwater Fisheries, China
Hypoxia represents a major physiological challenge for prawns and is a problem in aquaculture. Therefore, an understanding of the metabolic response mechanism of economically important prawn species to hypoxia and re-oxygenation is essential. However, little is known about the intrinsic mechanisms by which the oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense copes with hypoxia at the metabolic level. In this study, we conducted gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics studies and assays of energy metabolism-related parameters to investigate the metabolic mechanisms in the hepatopancreas of M. nipponense in response to 2.0 O2/L hypoxia for 6 h and 24 h, and reoxygenation for 6 h following hypoxia for 24 h. Prawns under hypoxic stress displayed higher glycolysis-related enzyme activities and lower mRNA expression levels of aerobic respiratory enzymes than those in the normoxic control group, and those parameters returned to control levels in the reoxygenated group. Our results showed that hypoxia induced significant metabolomic alterations in the prawn hepatopancreas within 24 h. The main metabolic alterations were depletion of amino acids and 2-hydroxybutanoic acid and accumulation of lactate. Further, the findings indicated that hypoxia disturbed energy metabolism and induced antioxidant defense regulation in prawns. Surprisingly, recovery from hypoxia (i.e., reoxygenation) significantly affected 25 metabolites. Some amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamate, and methionine) were markedly decreased compared to the control group, suggesting that increased degradation of amino acids occurred to provide energy in prawns at reoxygenation conditions. This study describes the acute metabolomic alterations that occur in prawns in response to hypoxia and demonstrates the potential of the altered metabolites as biomarkers of hypoxia.
Keywords: Macrobrachium nipponense, metabolomic, hypoxia, Hepatopancreas, Oxidative Stress
Received: 18 Oct 2017;
Accepted: 22 Jan 2018.
Edited by:Youji Wang, Shanghai Ocean University, China
Reviewed by:Katja Anttila, University of Turku, Finland
Huanling Wang, Huazhong Agricultural University, China
Adriana Mulhia, Center for Research in Food and Development (CIAD), Mexico
Hailong Zhou, Hainan University, China
Copyright: © 2018 Sun, Guo, Fu, Ge, Zhu and Gu. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Prof. Shengming Sun, Freshwater Fisheries Research Center, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi, China, firstname.lastname@example.org