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Front. Physiol. | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2018.01013

ECCENTRIC TRAINING IMPROVES BODY COMPOSITION BY INDUCING MECHANICAL AND METABOLIC ADAPTATIONS: A PROMISING APPROACH FOR OVERWEIGHT AND OBESE INDIVIDUALS

 Valerie Julian1, 2*, David Thivel3, Frédéric Costes1, 2,  Julianne Touron2, Yves Boirie2, 4,  Bruno Pereira5, Helene Perrault6,  Martine Duclos1, 2 and  Ruddy Richard1, 2
  • 1Service de Médecine du Sport et Explorations Fonctionnelles, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 2INRA, CRNH, Université Clermont Auvergne, France
  • 3AME2P, Université Clermont Auvergne, France
  • 4Service de Nutrition Clinique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 5Service de Biostatistique, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, France
  • 6Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, University of Ottawa, Canada

Skeletal muscle generates force by either shortening (concentrically) or lengthening (eccentrically). Eccentric (ECC) exercise is characterized by a lower metabolic demand and requires less muscle activity than concentric (CON) exercise at the same level of exerted force. However, the specific effect of ECC training versus CON training on lean and fat mass remains underexplored. The first aim of this paper was to review the available evidence regarding the effects of ECC training on whole body and segmental lean and fat mass and, when possible, compare these with the effects of CON training. The second aim was to provide some insights into the main mechanical, physiological, and metabolic adaptations of ECC training that contribute to its effects on body composition. The third aim was to determine the beneficial effects of ECC exercise on health-related parameters in overweight and obese patients. ECC training is an effective modality to improve lean mass, but when matched for load or work, the difference between ECC and CON trainings seems unclear. A few studies reported that ECC training is also efficient at reducing fat mass. By increasing post-exercise resting energy expenditure, modifying metabolic substrate, and improving both blood lipid profile and insulin resistance, ECC training is a potential exercise modality for individuals with chronic conditions such as those who are overweight and obese. Further investigations using standardized experimental conditions, examining not only segmental but also whole body composition, are required to compare ECC and CON trainings.

Keywords: eccentric exercise, Concentric exercise, fat mass, LEAN MASS, Obesity, Metabolism, training effects

Received: 19 Jan 2018; Accepted: 09 Jul 2018.

Edited by:

Vincent Pialoux, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1, France

Reviewed by:

Michael Harris-Love, Washington DC VA Medical Center, United States
Michalis G. Nikolaidis, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece  

Copyright: © 2018 Julian, Thivel, Costes, Touron, Boirie, Pereira, Perrault, Duclos and Richard. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Dr. Valerie Julian, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Service de Médecine du Sport et Explorations Fonctionnelles, Clermont-Ferrand, France, vjulian@chu-clermontferrand.fr