Contribution of extracellular vesicles in rebuilding injured muscles
- 1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children’s National Health System, United States
- 2Department of Genomics and Precision Medicine, School of Medicine and Health Sciences, George Washington University, United States
Skeletal myofibers are injured due to mechanical stresses experienced during physical activity, or due to myofiber fragility caused by genetic diseases. The injured myofiber needs to be repaired or regenerated to restore the loss in muscle tissue function. Myofiber repair and regeneration requires coordinated action of various intercellular signaling factors - including proteins, inflammatory cytokines, miRNAs and membrane lipids. It is increasingly being recognized release and transmission of these signaling factors involves extracellular vesicle (EV) released by myofibers and other cells in the injured muscle. Intercellular signaling by these EVs alters the phenotype of their target cells either by directly delivering the functional proteins and lipids or by modifying longer-term gene expression. These changes in the target cells activate downstream pathways involved in tissue homeostasis and repair. The EVs are heterogeneous with regards to their size, composition, cargo, location, as well as time-course of genesis and release. These differences impact on the subsequent repair and regeneration of injured skeletal muscles. This review focuses on how intracellular vesicle production, cargo packaging and secretion by injured muscle, modulates specific reparative and regenerative processes. Insights into the formation of these vesicles and their signaling properties offer new understandings of the orchestrated response necessary for optimal muscle repair and regeneration.
Keywords: injury, Exosomes, ectosomes, Calcium, skeletal muscle, myogenesis, miRNA, ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport), Exocytosis, Endocytosis
Received: 30 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 13 Jun 2019.
Edited by:Céline Aguer, Institut du savoir Montfort (ISM), Canada
Reviewed by:Ashok Kumar, University of Louisville, United States
Chiara Donati, University of Florence, Italy
Copyright: © 2019 Bittel and Jaiswal. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Dr. Jyoti K. Jaiswal, Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children’s National Health System, Washington, 20010, Maine, United States, firstname.lastname@example.org