Original Research ARTICLE
Effects of exercise training on growth and differentiation factor (GDF)11 expression in aged mice
- 1Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Japan
- 2The University of Tokyo, Japan
Exercise training is considered an effective way to prevent age-related skeletal muscle loss. However, the molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially considered a regulator of skeletal muscle aging. In this study, we examined whether GDF11 is associated with skeletal muscle aging and the effects of exercise training on age-related skeletal muscle loss. First, we observed that Gdf11 mRNA and protein expression levels in young (5-month-old, n = 6) and aged (22–26-month-old, n = 5) mice were not significantly different. Aged mice were then divided into sedentary (n = 5) and exercise (n = 6) groups. The exercise group performed moderate-intensity treadmill running for 6 weeks. Treadmill exercise training increased Gdf11 mRNA expression in the soleus muscle, but its protein expression was not altered. In contrast, the GDF11 level in the plantaris muscle was not changed at either the mRNA or protein level. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GDF11 levels do not change during aging, and that treadmill exercise training increased Gdf11 mRNA expression in a predominantly slow-twitch muscle.
Keywords: Exercise, skeletal muscle, Aging, Sarcopenia, GDF-11
Received: 09 Apr 2019;
Accepted: 11 Jul 2019.
Edited by:Gary Iwamoto, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States
Reviewed by:Thomas Lowder, University of Central Arkansas, United States
Todd Keylock, Bowling Green State University, United States
Paul S. Cooke, University of Florida, United States
Copyright: © 2019 LEE, Oikawa, Ushida, Suzuki and Akimoto. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
* Correspondence: Mx. Takayuki Akimoto, Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, 8050, Saitama, Japan, firstname.lastname@example.org