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Original Research ARTICLE Provisionally accepted The full-text will be published soon. Notify me

Front. Physiol. | doi: 10.3389/fphys.2019.00970

Effects of exercise training on growth and differentiation factor (GDF)11 expression in aged mice

 Minjung LEE1, Satoshi Oikawa1, Takashi Ushida2,  Katsuhiko Suzuki1 and  Takayuki Akimoto1*
  • 1Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Japan
  • 2The University of Tokyo, Japan

Exercise training is considered an effective way to prevent age-related skeletal muscle loss. However, the molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Growth and differentiation factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially considered a regulator of skeletal muscle aging. In this study, we examined whether GDF11 is associated with skeletal muscle aging and the effects of exercise training on age-related skeletal muscle loss. First, we observed that Gdf11 mRNA and protein expression levels in young (5-month-old, n = 6) and aged (22–26-month-old, n = 5) mice were not significantly different. Aged mice were then divided into sedentary (n = 5) and exercise (n = 6) groups. The exercise group performed moderate-intensity treadmill running for 6 weeks. Treadmill exercise training increased Gdf11 mRNA expression in the soleus muscle, but its protein expression was not altered. In contrast, the GDF11 level in the plantaris muscle was not changed at either the mRNA or protein level. Collectively, our data demonstrate that GDF11 levels do not change during aging, and that treadmill exercise training increased Gdf11 mRNA expression in a predominantly slow-twitch muscle.

Keywords: Exercise, skeletal muscle, Aging, Sarcopenia, GDF-11

Received: 09 Apr 2019; Accepted: 11 Jul 2019.

Edited by:

Gary Iwamoto, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, United States

Reviewed by:

Thomas Lowder, University of Central Arkansas, United States
Todd Keylock, Bowling Green State University, United States
Paul S. Cooke, University of Florida, United States  

Copyright: © 2019 LEE, Oikawa, Ushida, Suzuki and Akimoto. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

* Correspondence: Mx. Takayuki Akimoto, Graduate School of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Saitama, 8050, Saitama, Japan,